Effect of temperature on bio-oil characteristics in pyrolysis of Sunan candlenut olicake

  • I Made Rajendra Doctoral Engineering Sciences Study Program, Engineering Faculty, Udayana University, Bali 80361, Indonesia


This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on the characteristics of bio-oil on the pyrolysis of Sunan candlenut oilcake (SCO). SCO is the waste that arises from the compression of the Sunan candlenut seeds in the biodiesel production process, which can be converted into bio-oil as a raw material for bio-fuel. Furthermore, to obtain bio-oil, SCO was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor and the temperature varied at 250,350, 450, 550, and 650 oC to find the best conditions. The bio-oil was tested for the properties of the hydrocarbon compounds contained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and then compared. The results show that the percentage of hydrocarbons increases with increasing temperature. The bio-oil from the pyrolysis of SCO contains more than 70% hydrocarbon compounds at temperatures above 450 oC. Aromatic hydrocarbon increases with increasing temperature and are stable from 550 oC. Based on the results, it can be stated that the pyrolysis of SCO with the aim of obtaining bio-oil with optimum hydrocarbons content can be carried out at temperature intervals of 450 to 550 oC.


Download data is not yet available.


Zaimes, G.G., et al., Design of Sustainable Biofuel Processes and Supply Chains: Challenges and Opportunities. Processes, (2015). 3: p. 634-663 DOI: doi:10.3390/pr3030634.
Cai, J., et al., Processing thermogravimetric analysis data for isoconversional kinetic analysis of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis: Case study of corn stalk. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, (2018). 82: p. 2705-2715 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.09.113.
Mohabeer, C., et al., Comparative analysis of pyrolytic liquid products of beech wood, flax shives and woody biomass components. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, (2017). 127: p. 269-277 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2017.07.025.
Song, Q., et al., Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste with iron-based additives: A study on the kinetic, product distribution and catalytic mechanisms. Journal of Cleaner Production, (2020). 258: p. 120682 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120682.
Wang, T., et al., Pyrolysis characteristic changes of poplar wood during natural decay. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, (2017). 128: p. 257-260 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2017.10.003.
Cordella, M., et al., Yields and ageing of the liquids obtained by slow pyrolysis of sorghum, switchgrass and corn stalks. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, (2013). 104: p. 316-324 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2013.07.001.
Shirazi, Y., S. Viamajala, and S. Varanasi, In situ and Ex situ Catalytic Pyrolysis of Microalgae and Integration With Pyrolytic Fractionation. Frontiers in Chemistry, (2020). 8(786) DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2020.00786.
Nigam, P.S. and A. Singh, Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, (2011). 37: p. 52-68 DOI: 10.1016/j.pecs.2010.01.003.
Asadieraghi, M. and W.M.A.W. Daud, In-depth investigation on thermochemical characteristics of palm oil biomasses as potential biofuel sources. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, (2015). 115: p. 379-391 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2015.08.017.
Pranowo, D., et al., Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Kemiri Sunan (Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) dan Pemanfaatan Hasil Samping. 2014, Jakarta: IAARD Pres.
Quan, C., N. Gao, and Q. Song, Pyrolysis of biomass components in a TGA and a fixed-bed reactor: Thermochemical behaviors, kinetics, and product characterization. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, (2016). 121: p. 84-92 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2016.07.005.
Kabakcı, S.B. and Ş. Hacıbektaşoğlu, Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass, in Pyrolysis, M. Samer, Editor. 2017, IntechOpen: Energy Systems Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yalova University, Yalova, Turkey.
Chen, W.-H., et al., Catalytic level identification of ZSM-5 on biomass pyrolysis and aromatic hydrocarbon formation. Chemosphere, (2021). 271: p. 129510 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129510.
Nam, H.V., et al., Chemical composition of pyrolysis oil through thermal decomposition of sugarcane biomass. Vietnam J. Chem, (2020). 58(6): p. 770-778 DOI: DOI: 10.1002/vjch.202000077.
Sarıkoç, S., Fuels of the Diesel-Gasoline Engines and Their Properties, Diesel and Gasoline Engines, R. Viskup, Editor. 2020, IntechOpen.
Basu, P., Chapter 5 - Pyrolysis, in Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction (Third Edition), P. Basu, Editor. 2018, Academic Press. p. 155-187.
Jafarian, S. and A. Tavasoli, A comparative study on the quality of bioproducts derived from catalytic pyrolysis of green microalgae Spirulina (Arthrospira) plantensis over transition metals supported on HMS-ZSM5 composite. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, (2018). 43(43): p. 19902-19917 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.08.171.
Hu, Y., et al., Catalytic co-pyrolysis of seaweeds and cellulose using mixed ZSM-5 and MCM-41 for enhanced crude bio-oil production. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, (2021). 143(1): p. 827-842 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-09291-w.
Patel, M., X. Zhang, and A. Kumar, Techno-economic and life cycle assessment on lignocellulosic biomass thermochemical conversion technologies: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, (2016). 53(Supplement C): p. 1486-1499 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.09.070.
Van Nam, H., et al., Chemical composition of pyrolysis oil through thermal decomposition of sugarcane biomass. Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, (2020). 58(6): p. 770-778 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/vjch.202000077.
How to Cite
RAJENDRA, I Made. Effect of temperature on bio-oil characteristics in pyrolysis of Sunan candlenut olicake. International Journal of Engineering and Emerging Technology, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 2, p. 22-26, aug. 2022. ISSN 2579-5988. Available at: <https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/ijeet/article/view/79579>. Date accessed: 19 may 2024.