International Journal of Engineering and Emerging Technology is the biannual official publication of the Doctorate Program of Engineering Science, Faculty of Engineering, Udayana University. The journal is open to submission from scholars and experts in the wide areas of engineering, such as civil and construction, mechanical, architecture, electrical, electronic, and computer engineering, and information technology as well. The scope of these areas may encompass: (1) theory, methodology, practice, and applications; (2) analysis, design, development and evaluation; and (3) scientific and technical support to establishment of technical standards.