BIOAVAILABILITAS TIMBAL (Pb) DAN TEMBAGA (Cu) DALAM TANAH PERTANIAN SERTA KANDUNGANNYA DI DALAM BIJI PADI

  • Ni Desak Komang Ayu Hartani Program Studi Kimia FMIPA Universitas Udayana, Bukit Jimbaran, Bali-Indonesia
  • I Made Siaka Program Studi Kimia FMIPA Universitas Udayana, Bukit Jimbaran, Bali-Indonesia
  • I Wayan Suarsa Program Studi Kimia FMIPA Universitas Udayana, Bukit Jimbaran, Bali-Indonesia

Abstract

ABSTRAK: Penggunaan pupuk anorganik secara terus menerus pada tanah pertanian dapat menyebabkan peningkatan akumulasi logam berat dalam tanah tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat pencemaran, bioavailabilitas logam Pb dan Cu dalam tanah, dan kandungan logam tersebut dalam beras yang dihasilkan dari pertanian tersebut. Metode ekstraksi bertahap digunakan untuk spesiasi dan penentuan konsentrasi logamnya menggunakan instrumen AAS. Pada penelitian ini ditemukan bahwa kandungan logam total Pb dan Cu dalam tanah berturut-turut pada kisaran 58,76-70,22 mg/kg dan 66,60-72,31 mg/kg untuk tanah sebelum penanaman padi dan saat panen berkisar 65,33-78,09 mg/kg dan 71,07-82,25 mg/kg. Logam Pb dan Cu yang bioavailable pada tanah sebelum penanaman padi ditemukan paling rendah, yaitu 13,80-19,71% dan 10,82-11,69%, diikuti oleh logam non bioavailable: 35,33-38,83% dan 23,97-35,51%, dan paling tinggi adalah logam yang berpotensi bioavailable, yaitu 44,17-47,37% dan 52,98-64,62%. Akan tetapi, kandungan Pb dan Cu dalam beras berturut-turut 0.12-0,29 mg/kg dan 1,88-2,518 mg/kg. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, tanah pertanian di Desa Kukuh, Tabanan tergolong tidak tercemar menurut nilai the former Greater London Council (GLC), yaitu <500 mg/kg untuk Pb dan <100 mg/kg untuk Cu. Begitu juga, persentase logam yang bioavailable paling rendah, sehingga dapat diprediksi bahwa tidak lebih dari 20% logam-logam tersebut terakumulasi dalam tanaman. Ini terbukti bahwa kandungan Pb dan Cu dalam beras sangat kecil dan berada di bawah ambang batas yang diperbolehkan FAO/WHO, yaitu <0,3 mg/kg untuk Pb dan <10 mg/kg untuk Cu. Dengan demikian, beras yang diproduksi dari tanah pertanian tersebut tidak tercemar logam berat dan aman untuk dikonsumsi.


 


ABSTRACT: The use of inorganic fertilizers on agricultural soils continuously and excessively can lead to an increase in the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. This study aimed to determine the level of contamination, the bioavailability of Pb and Cu in soil, and their contents in rice produced from agriculture. The sequential extraction method was used to determine the bioavailability of the metals. In this study, it was found that the total metals content of Pb and Cu in the soil were 58.76-70.22 mg/kg and 66.60-72.31 mg/kg for the soil before planting rice and at harvest time were 65.33-78.09 mg/kg and 71.07-82.25 mg/kg, respectively. The Pb and Cu being bioavailable in the soil before planting rice were found to be the lowest at 13.80-19.71% and 10.82-11.69%, followed by non-bioavailable metals: 35.33-38.83% and 23.97-35.51%, and the highest were the metals being potentially bioavailable: 44.17-47.37% and 52.98-64.62%. However, Pb and Cu contents in rice were 0.12-0.29 mg/kg and 1.88-2.518 mg/kg. Based on the results of this study, agricultural soil in Kukuh Village, Tabanan was classified as unpolluted according to the value of the former Greater London Council (GLC) for Pb <500 mg/kg and <100 mg/kg for Cu). Moreover, it was found that the metals content in the rice was below the maximum limit allowed by FAO/WHO (<0.3 mg/kg for Pb and <10 mg/kg for Cu). Thus, rice produced from the agricultural soil of Kukuh-Tabanan was not contaminated by heavy metals and was safe for consumption.

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References

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Published
2022-10-31
How to Cite
AYU HARTANI, Ni Desak Komang; SIAKA, I Made; SUARSA, I Wayan. BIOAVAILABILITAS TIMBAL (Pb) DAN TEMBAGA (Cu) DALAM TANAH PERTANIAN SERTA KANDUNGANNYA DI DALAM BIJI PADI. CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry), [S.l.], v. 10, n. 2, p. 117 - 125, oct. 2022. ISSN 2302-7274. Available at: <https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/cakra/article/view/95654>. Date accessed: 20 june 2024.