• Muhammad Ridwan
  • Wira Gotera


Insulin is an anabolic hormone responsible for regulation of glucose metabolism and signals for storage and usage of
many fundamental nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids. Its effects on cardiovascular function, reveal wider
early-known insulin actions, are based on the balance between its NO-dependent vasodilator action and endothelin-1-dependent
vasocontriction action regulated by signals through phosphatidylinositole 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase
(MAPK)-dependent pathways on vascular endothelial cells. On insulin resistance setting, signal perturbances of PI3K pathway
and enhanced signals through MAPK pathway are conditions underlying link between metabolic disorders and cardiovascular
diseases. Insulin also has antiinflammatory effects by suppressing expression of ICAM-1, MCP-1, NF-kB, MMP-9 and CRP. On
the heart, insulin increases contractility and plays important roles in maximazing heart glucose uptake particularly in stress states.
In addition, insulin plays a role in physiologic heart growth through Akt pathway. However, chronic exposure of insulin is
associated with ventricular disfunction. In term of cardiovascular function, insulin is known to increase peripheral blood flow dan
to decrease peripheral resistance, so that results in enhanced cardiac output without significant changes in blood pressure.
Not only can improved insulin action repair glucose metabolism, but also improve risks underlying atherosclerosis and
cardiovascular complications of diabetes. In 2007, European Cardiac Society (ESC) has recommended intensive insulin usage to
tightly control blood glucose in order to improve adult critically ill and heart surgery patient mortality and morbidity


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Author Biographies

Muhammad Ridwan
Bagian/SMF Ilmu Penyakit Dalam FK Unud/RS Sanglah Denpasar
Wira Gotera
Bagian/SMF Ilmu Penyakit Dalam FK Unud/RS Sanglah Denpasar
How to Cite
RIDWAN, Muhammad; GOTERA, Wira. PENGARUH INSULIN TERHADAP FUNGSI KARDIOVASKULAR. journal of internal medicine, [S.l.], nov. 2012. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 10 july 2020.


insulin, cardiovascular, nitric oxide