Study of Transformer Lifetime Due to Loading Process on 20 KV Distribution Line
Power transformer is very important in electric power system due to its function to raise or lower the voltage according to its designation. On the power side, the power transformer serves to raise voltage to be transmitted to the transmission line. On the transmission side, the power transformer serves to distribute the voltage between the main substations or down to the distribution voltage. On the distribution side, the stresses are channeled to large customers or lowered to serve small and medium customers. As the power transformer is so importance, it is necessary to protect against disturbance, as well as routine and periodic maintenance, so that the power transformer can operate in accordance with the planned time. Some factors that affect the duration of the power transformer is the ambient temperature, transformer oil temperature, and the pattern of load. Load that exceeds the maximum efficiency of the transformer which is 80% of its capacity will cause an increase in transformer oil temperature. Transformer oil, other than as a cooling medium also serves as an insulator. Increasing the temperature of transformer oil will affect its ability as an isolator that is to isolate the parts that are held in the transformer, such as iron core and the coils. If this is prolonged and not handled properly, it will lead to failure / breakdown of insulation resulting in short circuit between parts so that the power transformer will be damaged. PLN data indicates that the power transformer is still burdened exceeding maximum efficiency especially operating in the work area of PLN South Bali Area. The results of this study, on distribution transformers with different loads, in DS 137, DS 263 and DS 363, show that DS 363 transformer with loading above 80% has the shortest residual life time compared to DS 263 and DS 137 which loading less than 80%.
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