Isu Hak Asasi Manusia dan Instrumen Perlindungan Pekerja Kapal Pesiar

Main Article Content

Putu Titah Kawitri Resen Sukma Sushanti


Abstract— This research aims to examine protection instruments for Indonesian cruise workers, both international and national instruments. Specifically, this research will focus on examining protection instruments for Indonesian workers who work in the cruise ship industry. This research is based on the phenomenon that almost 70 percent of workers in the cruise ship industry currently come from countries in Asia. Cruise workers from Indonesia are the second largest workforce after the Philippines. On the one hand, working on a cruise ship is still a dream for young people who are pinning their hopes on economic prosperity, but on the other hand, the global cruise industry is reported to be a tourism industry that largely ignores the human rights of its workers, especially those from developing countries. This research applies literature study and in-depth interviews with carefully selected informants to collect relevant data, which is then interpreted and analyzed based on concepts related to Tourism and Human Rights and Labor/Employment Protection. The findings of this research show that protection for cruise ship workers has been guaranteed by international and domestic instruments; however, the power of cruise ship companies in the flags of convenience system causes ship workers to remain in a condition of exploitation.


Kata Kunci cruise industry, human rights, protection instruments, workers  

Article Details

How to Cite
RESEN, Putu Titah Kawitri; SUSHANTI, Sukma. Isu Hak Asasi Manusia dan Instrumen Perlindungan Pekerja Kapal Pesiar. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi (Senastek), [S.l.], v. 8, n. 1, p. 264-268, dec. 2023. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 21 feb. 2024.


[1] Budiartha, I.N.P. (2018 Work Permit for Foreign Workers in Indonesia. ). Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues 21(Special Issue ).
[2] Cole, S. and Eriksson, J. (2011) ‘Tourism and Human Rights’, in Cole, S. and Morgan.N (eds) Tourism and Inequality : Problems and Prospects. Oxfordshire: CABI, pp. 107–123.
[3] DeSombre, E.R. (2006). Flagging standards: Globalisation and environmental, safety and labor regulations at sea. Cambridge: The MIT Press
[4] Klein, R.A. Cruise Ship Blues: The Underside of the Cruise Ship Industry, 2nd ed.; New Society Publishers: Gabriola Island, BC, Canada, 2002
[5] Lillie, N. 2004. Global collective bargaining on flag of convenience shipping. British Journal of Industrial Relations 42:47-67.
[6] Mather, C. (2002) Sweatships. Available at:
[7] Negret, C.F.L. (2016) ‘Pretending to be Liberian and Panamian; Flags of Convenience and The
[8]Nuraeny, H. (2017). Trafficking of Migrant Workers in Indonesia: A Legal Enforcement and Economic Perspective of Prevention and Protection Efforts. European Research Studies, 20(4B), 16-26.
[9] Okonkwo, T. (2018). International maritime legal regime and the escalation of flags of convenience practices. International journal of law, 4(1), 1-9. Retrieved from /vol4/issue1/3-5-15
[10] Sengenberger, W. (2006), The Role of International Labour Standards for Governing the Internationalization of Employment. In Auer, P, Besse, G. and Meda, D (eds.), Offshoring and Internationalization of Employment, International Institute for Labour Studies (ILO), pp. 163-177
[11] Setyawati, D. (2013). Assets or commodities? Comparing regulations of placement and protection of migrant workers in Indonesia and the Philippines. ASEAS-Österreichische Zeitschrift für Südostasienwissenschaften 6, (2), 264-280.
[12] Weakening of The Nation State on The High Seas’, Journal of Maritime Law & Commerce, 47(1), pp. 1–28. Available at: