Balinese Indigenous Knowledge about Water : A Way to Achieve Water Sustainability

  • Amrita Nugraheni Saraswaty
  • Wayan Gita Kesuma Universitas Udayana
  • Murjana Yasa


For the Balinese, water is essential for their ritual-based culture. Water is an entity to complete Balinese everyday life, especially the spiritual aspects that need holy water for rituals. This study aims to analyze the influence of Balinese indigenous knowledge about groundwater management, membership of the indigenous organizations, perception of the catchment areas, and water resources alternatives to groundwater resource conservation amongst Balinese. To address this, a survey of a representative sample of 139 Balinese adults in SARBAGITA (Denpasar Regency, Badung Regency, Gianyar Regency, and Tabanan Regency) has been conducted. With logistic regression model, this study found that knowledge and method used in respondents' households when water is limited are the most significant factor that affects respondents' willingness to participate in sacred springs conservation program.


Download data is not yet available.


Akhmouch, A., & Correia, F. N. 2016. The 12 OECD principles on water governance – When science meets policy. Utilities Policy, 43, 14–20. Atmadja, N. B. 2020. Wacana Postgenerik Terhadap Tri Hita Karana Pada Masyarakat Bali.
Rajawali Press.
Brooijmans, S., Franken, M. C., de Longh, Z. Z. E., de Jong, W. K., & van Marsbergen, A. M. 2019. Plastic Discharge in Bali’s Rivers (No. CIE4061-09). DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25445.14560
Cole, S. 2012. A political ecology of water equity and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 1221–1241.
Cole, S., & Browne, M. 2015. Tourism and Water Inequity in Bali: A Social-Ecological Systems Analysis. Human Ecology, 43(3), 439–450.
Coulibaly, L., Jakus, P. M., & Keith, J. E. 2014. Modeling water demand when households have multiple sources of water. Water Resources Research, 50(7), 6002–6014.
Dean, A. J., Fielding, K. S., & Newton, F. J. 2016a. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies? PLOS ONE, 11(7), e0159063.
Dean, A. J., Lindsay, J., Fielding, K. S., & Smith, L. D. G. 2016b. Fostering water sensitive citizenship – Community profiles of engagement in water-related issues. Environmental Science & Policy, 55, 238–247.
Dixit, A. 2009. Governance Institutions and Economic Activity. American Economic Review, 99(1), 5–24.
Elliott, M., Foster, T., MacDonald, M. C., Harris, A. R., Schwab, K. J., & Hadwen, W. L. 2019. Addressing how multiple household water sources and uses build water resilience and support sustainable development. Npj Clean Water, 2(1), 6.
Foster, T., & Hope, R. 2017. Evaluating waterpoint sustainability and access implications of revenue collection approaches in rural Kenya. Water Resources Research, 53(2), 1473– 1490.
Foster, T., & Willetts, J. 2018. Multiple water source use in rural Vanuatu: Are households choosing the safest option for drinking? International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 28(6), 579–589.
Gilbertson, M., Hurlimann, A., & Dolnicar, S. 2011. Does water context influence behaviour and attitudes to water conservation? Australasian Journal of Environmental Management, 18(1), 47–60.

Hooykaas, C. 2013. Cosmogony and Creation in Balinese Tradition. Springer Netherlands.
Hunt, S. 2014. Ontologies of Indigeneity: The politics of embodying a concept. Cultural Geographies, 21(1), 27–32.
Jacobs, M. H., & Buijs, A. E. 2011. Understanding stakeholders’ attitudes toward water management interventions: Role of place meanings. Water Resources Research, 47(1).
Lanus, S. 2018. Air, Tirtha (Patirtan), Toya (Patoyan) dan Beji dalam Tradisi Jawa Kuna. Tatkala.Com. tradisi-jawa-kuna/
Luo, P., Kang, S., Apip, Zhou, M., Lyu, J., Aisyah, S., Binaya, M., Regmi, R. K., & Nover, D. 2019. Water quality trend assessment in Jakarta: A rapidly growing Asian megacity. PLOS ONE, 14(7), e0219009.
Marlow, D. R., Moglia, M., Cook, S., & Beale, D. J. 2013. Towards sustainable urban water management: A critical reassessment. Water Research, 47(20), 7150–7161.
McDuff, M. M., Appelson, G. S., Jacobson, S. K., & Israel, G. D. 2008. Watershed management in north Florida: Public knowledge, attitudes and information needs. Lake and Reservoir Management, 24(1), 47–56.
Nguyen, T. H., & Ross, A. 2017. Barriers and Opportunities for the Involvement of Indigenous Knowledge in Water Resources Management in the Gam River Basin in North-East Vietnam. 10(1), 26.
Okumah, M., Yeboah, A. S., Nkiaka, E., & Azerigyik, R. A. 2019. What Determines Behaviours Towards Water Resources Management in a Rural Context? Results of a Quantitative Study. Resources, 8(2), 109.
Oremo, F., Mulwa, R., & Oguge, N. 2019. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Water Resources Management among Smallholder Irrigators in the Tsavo Sub-Catchment, Kenya. Resources, 8(3), 130.
Özdemir, S., Elliott, M., Brown, J., Nam, P. K., Thi Hien, V., & Sobsey, M. D. 2011. Rainwater harvesting practices and attitudes in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 1(3), 171–177.
Padowski, J. C., & Gorelick, S. M. 2014. Corrigendum: Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 104004). Environmental Research Letters, 9(11), 119501.
Pandey, C. L. 2021) Managing urban water security: Challenges and prospects in Nepal. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23(1), 241–257.
Paneque, P., Lafuente, R., & Vargas, J. 2018. Public Attitudes toward Water Management Measures and Droughts: A Study in Southern Spain. Water, 10(4), 369.
PNB, & IDEP. 2018. Laporan Akhir BWP Project Research Tahun 2018. PND and IDEP Bali. Ramstedt, M. 2014. Discordant temporalities in Bali’s new village jurisdictions. The Journal of
Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 46(1), 60–78.

Ren, L., Cui, E., & Sun, H. 2014. Temporal and spatial variations in the relationship between urbanization and water quality. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(23), 13646–13655.
Sadoff, C. W., Borgomeo, E., & Uhlenbrook, S. 2020. Rethinking water for SDG 6. Nature Sustainability, 3(5), 346–347.
Schewe, J., Heinke, J., Gerten, D., Haddeland, I., Arnell, N. W., Clark, D. B., Dankers, R., Eisner, S., Fekete, B. M., Colón-González, F. J., Gosling, S. N., Kim, H., Liu, X., Masaki, Y., Portmann, F. T., Satoh, Y., Stacke, T., Tang, Q., Wada, Y. Kabat, P. 2014. Multimodel assessment of water scarcity under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(9), 3245–3250.
Sperling, E. 2020. Over-Exposure to Tourism in Bali, Indonesia. Storymaps.
Spijkers, O., Li, X., & Dai, L. 2018. Public Participation in China’s Water Governance. Chinese Journal of Environmental Law, 2(1), 28–56. Suamba, I. B. P. 2017. Air dalam Peradaban Bali. Rembug Sastra Purnama Badrawada, Pura
Agung Jagatnatha, Denpasar, Bali.
Thielborger, P. 2014. The right(s) to water: The multi-level governance of a unique human right.
Vairavamoorthy, K., Eckart, J., Tsegaye, S., Ghebremichael, K., & Khatri, K. A. 2015. Paradigm Shift in Urban Water Management: An Imperative to Achieve Sustainability. In M. C. Donoso & S. G. Setegn (Eds.), Sustainability of Integrated Water Resources Management: Water Governance, Climate and Ecohydrology (1st ed. 2015). Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer.
Vörösmarty, C. J., McIntyre, P. B., Gessner, M. O., Dudgeon, D., Prusevich, A., Green, P., Glidden, S., Bunn, S. E., Sullivan, C. A., Liermann, C. R., & Davies, P. M. 2010. Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature, 467(7315), 555–561.
Watts, V. 2013. Indigenous place-thought and agency amongst humans and non-humans (First Woman and Sky Woman go on a European world tour!). Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, 2(1).
Wilson, N. J., & Inkster, J. 2018. Respecting water: Indigenous water governance, ontologies, and the politics of kinship on the ground. Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, 1(4), 516–538.
Zhang, H. X. 2018. Climate Change and Global Water Sustainability. In Encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology + ereference. Springer.
How to Cite
SARASWATY, Amrita Nugraheni; KESUMA, Wayan Gita; YASA, Murjana. Balinese Indigenous Knowledge about Water : A Way to Achieve Water Sustainability. Jurnal Ekonomi Kuantitatif Terapan, [S.l.], p. 381-399, sep. 2021. ISSN 2303-0186. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 21 may 2024. doi: