Are Wealthier People Healthier? An Analysis to Indonesian Baby Boomers

  • Axellina Muara Setyanti Universitas Brawijaya
  • Nayaka Artha Wicesa Universitas Brawijaya


The elderly population in Indonesia has doubled in the last five decades, along with an increase in life expectancy and mortality. Those who were born in the 1940s to 1960s or the baby boomer generation are those who are in old age now. There are many studies that analyze the relationship of wealth to one's health level, but not many have looked specifically at the elderly population. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of wealth on elderly’s health condition. Using binomial logistic regression, this study found that the highest average health probability of the elderly was 78.96 percent, i.e. those with working status, above average income and no expenditure on unhealthy commodities such as cigarettes, while the average health probability the lowest was 52.44 percent, i.e. those with non-work status, below-average income, and having expenditures for unhealthy commodities. This study found that wealth affects the health level of the elderly. These conclusions, accompanied by aging conditions in a country have policy implications that must consistently implement efforts to improve social welfare for the elderly, thereby creating healthy and active aging.


Download data is not yet available.


Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). 2019. Statistik Penduduk Lanjut Usia 2019. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik Nasional.
Belgrave LL, Haug MR, Gomez-Bellenge FX. 1987. Gender and race differences in effects of health and pension on retirement before 65. Comprehensive Gerontology [B]. 1(3):109-17.
Benzeval, M., Bond, L., Campbell, M., Egan, M., Lorenc, T., Petticrew, M., & Popham, F. 2014. How does money influence health?. Project Report. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York.
Bhattacharya, Jayanta, Janet Currie, and Steven Haider. 2004. Poverty, Food Insecurity, and Nutritional Outcomes in Children and Adults. Journal of Health Economics 23 (4): 839–62.
Block, S. 2010. Work and Health: Exploring the impact of employment on health disparities. The Wellesley Institute.
Brulle, Robert J., and David N. Pellow. 2006. Environmental Justice: Human Health and Environmental Inequalities. Annual Review of Public Health 27: 103–24
Dahmann, Nicholas, Jennifer Wolch , Pascale Joassart-Marcelli, Kim Reynolds, and Michael Jerrett. 2010. The Active City? Disparities in Provision of Urban Public Recreation Resources. Health Place 16 (3): 431–45.
Darmojo, Boedhi., Martono, Hadi.,dkk., 2010 , Buku Ajar Geriatri. Edisi ke – 4, Jakarta: Balai Penerbit FKUI
Dave, D., Rashad, I., & Spasojevic, J. 2006. The effects of retirement on physical and mental health outcomes (No. w12123). National Bureau of Economic Research.
DaVanzo, Julie. 2001 Preparing for an Aging World. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Deaton, A. 2002. Policy implications of the gradient of health and wealth. Health affairs, 21(2), 13-30.
Doubeni, C. A., M. Schootman, J. M. Major, R. A. Stone, A. O. Laiyemo, Y. Park, M. Lian, L. Messer, B. I. Graubard, R. Sinha, A. R. Hollenbeck, and A. Schatzkin. 2012. Health Status, Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context, and Premature Mortality in the United States: The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. American Journal of Public Health 102 (4): 680–8
Feinstein, J.S. & Ho, C.C. 2000. Elderly Asset Management and Health: An Empirical Analysis. Yale School of Management Working Paper No. H-8.
Kim, J. E., & Moen, P. 2002. Retirement transitions, gender, and psychological well-being: A life-course, ecological model. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57(3), P212-P222.
Knickman, J. R., & Snell, E. K. 2002. The 2030 problem: caring for aging baby boomers. Health services research, 37(4), 849-884.
Lancaster, L. C. and Stillman, D. 2002. When Generations Collide. Who They Are. Why They Clash. How to Solve the Generational Puzzle at Work. New York: Collins Business.
Löllgen, H., Böckenhoff, A., Knapp, G., 2009. Physical activity and all-cause mortality: an updated meta-analysis with different intensity categories. Int. J. Sports Med. 30 (03), 213–224
Mannheim, K. 1952. The Problem of Generations. Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge, 24(19), 276-322–24.
Marmot M. 1999. Multi-Level Approaches to Understanding Social Determinants. Social Epidemiology. Berkman L and Ichiro K, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Martin, C. A. and Tulgan, B. 2002. Managing the Generational Mix. Amherst, MA: HRD Press.
Maryam, Siti. 2010. Asuhan Keperawatan Pada Lansia. Jakarta: Trans Info Medika
McGarry K. 2004. Health and retirement: do changes in health affect retirement expectations? Journal of Human Resources. 39(3):624-48.
Mohai, Paul, Paula M. Lanz, Jeffrey Morenoff, James S. House, and Richard P. Mero. 2009. Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in Residential Proximity to Polluting Industrial Facilities: Evidence from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study. American Journal of Public Health 99 (suppl 3): S649–S56.
Morland, Kimberley, and Susan Filomena. 2007. Disparities in the Availability of Fruits and Vegetables between Racially Segregated Urban Neighbourhoods. Public Health Nutrition 10 (12): 1481–9.
Mueller, J. T., Park, S. Y., & Mowen, A. J. 2019 a. The relationship between parks and recreation per capita spending and mortality from 1980 to 2010: a fixed effects model. Preventive medicine reports, 14, 100827.
Mueller, J. T., Park, S. Y., & Mowen, A. J. 2019 b. The relationship between self-rated health and local government spending on parks and recreation in the United States from 1997 to 2012. Preventive medicine reports, 13, 105-112.
Nasir, Sudirman. 2015. Indonesia at 70: Prepare for aging population. At The Jakarta Post Saturday, August 15, 2015, Retrieved from
NCBI / National Research Council (US) Panel on a Research Agenda and New Data for an Aging World. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US);. 6, The Health of Aging Populations. Available from:
Nocon, M., Hiemann, T., Müller-Riemenschneider, F., Thalau, F., Roll, S., Willich, S.N., 2008. Association of physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Prev. Rehabil. 15 (3), 239–246.
Ogg, J. and Bonvalet, C., 2011. Baby boomers: a mobile generation. Oxford: The Bardwell Press.
Park, B. H., Jung, M., & Lee, T. J. 2009. Associations of income and wealth with health status in the Korean elderly. J Prev Med Public Health, 42(5), 275-282.
Putnam R. 2000. Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. Simon & Schuster: New York.
Saffer H. 2005. The demand for social interaction. NBER Working Paper No.11881.
Salman, D. M., & Atya, E. M. 2012. Relation between Health and Wealth: Is it a Myth or a True Relationship? Evidence from Egypt. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, (51).
Tajvar, M., Arab, M., & Montazeri, A. 2008. Determinants of health-related quality of life in elderly in Tehran, Iran. BMC public health, 8(1), 323.
Tiainen, Marta. 2018. The relationship between wealth and health. Master’s Thesis University of Helsinki Faculty of Social Science Economics, retrieved from
Undang-Undang Nomor 13 Tahun 1998 tentang Kesejahteraan Lanjut Usia
Woolf, S. H., Sarah M Simon, Laudan Aron, Emily Zimmerman, Lisa Dubay, Kim X Luk. 2015. How are income and wealth linked to health and longevity?. Income and Health Initiative: Brief One. Urban Institute.
Zhang, Xingyou, Robert L. Phillips, Jr., Andrew W. Bazemore, Martey S. Dodoo, Stephen M. Petterson, Imam Xierall, and Larry A. Green. 2008. Physician Distribution and Access: Workforce Priorities. American Family Physician 77 (10): 1378
How to Cite
SETYANTI, Axellina Muara; WICESA, Nayaka Artha. Are Wealthier People Healthier? An Analysis to Indonesian Baby Boomers. Jurnal Ekonomi Kuantitatif Terapan, [S.l.], p. 97-114, feb. 2021. ISSN 2303-0186. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 21 oct. 2021. doi: