Kombinasi Nanopartikel Quercetin-Kaempferol Berpolimer Kitosan sebagai Penatalaksanaan Kanker Kolorektal

  • Anak Agung Bagus Putra Indrakusuma Program Studi Sarjana Kedokteran dan Profesi Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia
  • Aizar Vesa Prasetyo Program Studi Sarjana Kedokteran dan Profesi Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia
  • Nareswara Pawestri Program Studi Sarjana Kedokteran dan Profesi Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia
  • Ketut Adhi Pramana Sinardja Program Studi Sarjana Kedokteran dan Profesi Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia

Abstract

ABSTRAK 


Pendahuluan: Kanker kolorektal merupakan jenis kanker yang berasal dari jaringan usus besar. Kanker kolorektal telah mengakibatkan 2 juta kasus baru dan 1 juta kematian secara global. Di Indonesia, prevalensi kanker kolorektal adalah 12,8% per 100.000 penduduk usia dewasa dengan mortalitas sebesar 9,5%. Penanganan kanker kolorektal saat ini seperti pembedahan, radioterapi, dan pemberian obat anti-kanker dinilai kurang efektif karena mahal dan memicu efek samping.


Pembahasan: Quercetin dan kaempferol merupakan zat flavonoid yang dapat mengobati kanker kolorektal melalui serangkaian mekanisme pada tahapan proses karsinogenesis, yaitu menghalangi proliferasi dengan menghambat NF-kB, meningkatkan proses apoptosis dengan memengaruhi gen CASP2, CLEC4M, dan NTR3K, serta menimbulkan efek antiangiogenesis dengan menurunkan ekspresi MMP-2 dan MMP-9. Keterbatasan modalitas ini ialah rendahnya bioavailabilitasnya sehingga dikemas dalam bentuk nanopartikel berpolimer kitosan. Quercetin terbanyak diperoleh dari kulit bawang sedangkan kaempferol diperoleh dari daun bawang. Pembuatan nanopartikel kitosan quercetin-kaempferol menggunakan metode top down (maserasi). Modalitas ini diadministrasikan secara oral. Kitosan sebagai polimer akan larut saat memasuki asam lambung. Farmakokinetik dari modalitas akan dimulai dengan absorpsi oleh usus halus dan diakhiri oleh ekskresi oleh ginjal serta eliminasi oleh usus besar. Quercetin 15 ?M-30 ?M mampu menurunkan cell viability menjadi 63 ± 1,3% hingga 41 ± 0,3%. Sedangkan, kaempferol 30 ?M-60 ?M mampu menurunkan cell viability menjadi 62 ± 0,83% hingga 26 ± 0,91%.


Simpulan: Kombinasi quercetin dan kaempferol dapat meningkatkan proses apoptosis secara eksternal maupun internal serta menghambat proliferasi dan angiogenesis sel kanker kolorektal.


Kata kunci: Kanker kolorektal, Quercetin, Kaempferol

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Published
2022-01-31
How to Cite
INDRAKUSUMA, Anak Agung Bagus Putra et al. Kombinasi Nanopartikel Quercetin-Kaempferol Berpolimer Kitosan sebagai Penatalaksanaan Kanker Kolorektal. Essential: Essence of Scientific Medical Journal, [S.l.], v. 19, n. 2, p. 5-13, jan. 2022. ISSN 2655-6472. Available at: <https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/essential/article/view/64096>. Date accessed: 27 june 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.24843/ESTL.2021.v19.i02.p02.