Sports Event Satisfaction and Word-of-Mouth Intention

Evidence from the 2018 Asian Games International Participants and Spectators

  • Mohamad Dian Revindo School of Strategic and Global Studies, Universitas Indonesia (SKSG UI)
  • Amalia Adininggar Widyasanti Ministry of National Development Planning (Bappenas)
  • Nalindro Nusantoro School of Strategic and Global Studies, Universitas Indonesia (SKSG UI)
  • Chairina Hanum Siregar LPEM FEB UI


A mega sports event is expected to bring immediate and long-term impact on the host country’s economy. In this study, we explore one of the possible long-term outcomes of the Jakarta-Palembang 2018 Asian Games in the tourism sector by estimating the factors influencing the intention of its international spectators and participants in spreading positive word-of-mouth (WOM) about Indonesia to their respective relatives, friends, and colleagues after the event. Based on the face-to-face survey conducted during the event, there were 1,914 usable responses from international athletes, country officials, committees-sport federations, journalists, and spectators. The results show that the respondents were more likely to spread positive WOM if they were male, had never traveled to Indonesia, had the experience of participating in other international sports events, were relatively older, had long periods of stay in Indonesia during the visit, and participated in the event as a non-athlete. Furthermore, satisfaction with the provisions of facilities, including venues, food and accommodations, telecommunications and internet access, easy match scheduling, safety and security, information services, and transportation arrangements, had positive effects on their intention to spread positive WOM, although only the last two factors were statistically significant. This paper also discusses the policy and academic implications of the findings.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmed, Z. U. (1991). The Influence of the Components of a State’s Tourist Image on Product Positioning Strategy. Tourism Management, 12(4), 331-340.

Akroush, M. (2012), Perceived brand salience and destination brand loyalty from international tourists’ perspective: the case of Dead Sea destination, Jordan. International Journal of CuLTURE Tourism and Hospitality Research, January 2015. pp. 48-89.
Alexandris et al., 2008). Alexandris, K., Douka, S., Papadopoulos, P. and Kaltsatou, A. (2008), “Testing the role of service quality on the development of brand associations and brand loyalty”, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 239-254.

Baade & Matheso 2004 Baade, R. A., & Matheson, V. A. (2004). The quest for the cup: Assessing the economic impact of theworld cup. Regional Studies, 38(4), 343–354.

Baloglu, Seyhmus & Brinberg, David (1997) 'Affective Images of Tourism Destinations'. Journal of Travel Research 35(4):11-15.

Baloglu, S. and McCleary, K.W. (1999), “A model of destination image formation”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp. 868-897.

Boo S., Busser J., Baloglu S. (2009). A model of customer-based brand equity and its application to multiple destinations. Tourism Management, 30(2), 219–231.
Calantone, R., C. Di Benetton, A. Hakam, and D. Bojanic 1989 “Multiple Multinational Tourism Positioning Using Correspondence Analysis”. Journal of Travel Research 28(2): 25-32.

Case, Robert., Tanujit Dey, Stephen Hobbs., Jordan Hoolacha, Andrew Wilcox. (2010). An Examination of Sporting Event Direct-Spending Patterns at Three Competitive Levels. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, Volume 11, 2010 – Issue 2, Pages 119 – 137.
Case, Rober., Tanujit Dey, Jasper Lu, Jeff Phang, ndie Schwanz. (2013). Participant Spending at Sporting Events: An Examination of Survey Methodologies. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism 14(1):21-41.

Chalip, L., & Leyns, A. (2002). Local business leveraging of a sport event: Managing an event for economic benefit. Journal of Sport Management, 16(2), 132-158.
Chalip et al., 2003 MEDIA BRANDING L. Jago, L. Chalip, G. Brown, T. Mules and S. Ali, ‘Building Events into Destination Branding: Insights from Experts’, Event Management, 8, 1 (2003), 3–14.
Chalip et al., 2005 MEDIA BRANDING G. Brown, L. Chalip, L. Jago and T. Mules, ‘Developing Brand Australia: Examining the Role of Events’, in N. Morgan, A. Pritchard and R. Pride (eds), Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004), pp.279–305. A. Smith, ‘Reimaging the City: The Value of Sport Initiatives’, Annals of Tourism Research, 32, 1 (2005), 217–36
Chen, Po-Ju., Deborah Kerstetter. (1999). International Students’ Image of Rural Pennsylvania as a Travel Destination. Journal of Travel Research – February 1999. DOI: 10.1177/004728759903700307
Daniels, M. J., Backman, K. F., & Backman, S. J. (2004). Supplementing event economic impact results with perspectives from host community business and opinion leaders. Event Management, 8(3), 117-125.
Davis 2012 Davis, J. A. (2012). The Olympic Games effect: How sports marketing builds strong brands. Singapore:John Wiley & Sons.

Dayan., Danie; and Elihu Katz (1992). Media Events The Live Broadcasting of History. Harvard University Press

De Knop., Paul and Joy Stadeven (1999). Sport Tourism., Human Kintics, 1999

Deply, 1998 Delpy, L. (1998). An overview of sport tourism: Building towards a dimensional framework. Journal of vacation marketing, 4(1), 23-38.
Ehrenberg, A.S.C., Barnard, N., Kennedy, R. and Bloom, H. (2000) ‘Brand Advertising as Creative Publicity’, Journal of Advertising Research 42(July/August): 7–18.
Faullant et al., 2008). Faullant, R., Matzler, K. and Fuller, J. (2008), “The impact of satisfaction and image on loyalty: the caseof Alpine ski resort”, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 163-178.
Fourie, J. and Santana-Gallego, M. (2011) ‘The impact of mega-sport events on tourist arrivals’, Tourism Management. Elsevier Ltd, 32(6), pp. 1364–1370. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.01.011.
Fullerton, Sam., and Merz, G. Russell. (2008) ‘ The Four Domains of Sports Marketing: A Conceptual Framework. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17, 90 – 108

Green, C. Costa and M. Fitzgerald, (2003). “Marketing the Host City: Analyzing Exposure Generated by a Sport Event”, International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 4, 4 (2003), 335–52.
Guido, G. (1998) ‘The Dichotic Theory of Salience: A Framework for Assessing Attention and Memory’, European Advances in Consumer Research 3(3): 114–19.

Haddad and Haddad, 2010).  Haddad, Eduardo A., and Paulo R. Haddad. (2010) "Major sport events and regional development: the case of the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic Games." Regional Science Policy & Practice 2, no. 1: 79- 95
Hinch, Tom., Higham, James. (2011) 'Sports Tourism Development'. 2nd Edition. Channel View Publications.

Kapferer, J.N. (2004), The New Strategic Brand Management: Creating and Sustaining Brand Equity Long Term, Kogan Page, London.

Kasimati, E. (2003) ‘Economic aspects and the Summer Olympics: a review of related research’, International Journal of Tourism Research, 5(6), pp. 433–444. DOI: 10.1002/jtr.449.

Keller, K.L. and Davey, K.K. (2001) ‘Building Customer-Based Brand Equity’, paper presented at Advertising Research Foundation workshop, New York.
Keller, K.L. (2003) ‘Brand Synthesis: The Multidimentionality of Brand Knowledge’, Journal of Consumer Research 29(March): 595–601.

Kim et al., 2013 Kim, S., Holland, S., Han and H. (2013), “A structural model for examining how destination image, perceived value, and service quality affect destination loyalty: a case study of Orlando”, International Journal of Tourism Research International Journal Tourism Research, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 313-328.

Konecnik, M.R. (2010), “Clarifying the concept of customer-based brand equity for a tourism
destination”, Annales, series HistoriaetSociologia, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 189-200.

Koo., Sun Keun. (2013) ‘The Effect of Destination Image, Event Image, and Satisfaction In Determinig Behavioural Intention: Recurring Small-Scale Event’. Master Thesis. University of Georgia.

Kotler Philip. (2005). Manajemen Pemasaran, Jilid 1, PT. Indeks Kelompok Gramedia, Jakarta

KPMG (2017) ‘The Economic Impact of Major Sports Events’, (September). Available at:
Kurtzman, J. and Zauhar, J. (2005) ‘Sports tourism consumer motivation’, Journal of Sport & Tourism. Routledge, 10(1), pp. 21–31. DOI: 10.1080/14775080500101478.
Lee and Taylor, 2005).  Lee, C. K., & Taylor, T. (2005). Critical reflections on the economic impact assessment of a mega-event: the case of 2002 FIFA World Cup. Tourism management, 26(4), 595-603.
Lim, Y. and Weaver, P.A. (2014), “Customer-based brand equity for a destination: the effect of destination image on preference for products associated with a destination brand”, International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 223-231.
MacKay, Kelly J., Daniel R Fesenmaiaer. (1997). Pictorial element of destination in image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 24, Issue 3, 1997, Pages 537 - 565
Manzenreiter 2002 Horne, J.and Manzenreiter, W.(eds. ) (2002) Japan, Korea and the 2002 World Cup, London:
Moragas, M. de, Rivenburgh, N.K., and Larson, J.F. (Eds.) (1996). Television in the Olympics. London: John Libbey
Muller, A., Biro, M., Rathonyi-Ódor, K. I. N. G. A., Rathonyi, G., Szeles-Kovacs, G. Y. U. L. A., Boda, E., ... & ndras, A. (2016) ‘Economic impacts of sports events.’, Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Educatio Artis Gymnasticae, pp. 85–96.

Oppermann, M. (2000), “Tourism destination loyalty”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 39 No. 1,
pp. 78-84.

Oribis Research 2018 Orbis Research. (2018). Sports tourism market estimated to be worth US$800 billion globally according to new research report. Retrieved from archive/436642-sports-tourism-market-estimated-to-be-worth-us-800-billion-globallyaccording-to-new-research-report
Palrão, T. and Filipe, J. A. (2017) ‘Sports Events Tourism: An Approach to the Portuguese Case’, (2), pp. 1320–1335.

Pike et al. (2010) Pike, S., Bianchi, C., Kerr, G. and Patti, C. (2010), “Consumer-based brand equity for Australia as a long-haul tourism destination in an emerging market”, International Marketing Review, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 434-449.

Preuss., Holger. (2005). The economic impact of visitors at major multi-sport events. European Sport Management Quarterly 5(3):281-301. September 2005.

Revindo, M. D., Widyasanti, A. A., Siregar, C. H., Anindita, D., Hastuti, N. W., & Hambali, S. (2019). Long-Term Effect of Mega Sports Event on Host Country’s Tourism: Evidence From the Jakarta-Palembang 2018 Asian Games. Working Paper No 040. Institute for Economic and Social Research.

Revindo 2021 Mohamad Dian Revindo, Amalia Adininggar Widyasanti, Chairina Hanum Siregar & Sean Hambali (2021) Factors explaining the expenditure of sports event participants and spectators: evidence from the 2018 Asian Games, Journal of Sport & Tourism, 25:2, 105-127, DOI: 10.1080/14775085.2021.1883460
Ritchie, Brent W., Adair, Daryl. (2004) 'Sports Tourism: Interrelationships, Impacts and issues', Channel View Publications.

Ritchie and Smith, 1991 MEDIA BRANDING J. Ritchie and B. Smith, ‘The Impact of a Mega-Event on Host Region Awareness: A Longitudinal Study’, Journal of Travel Research, 13, 2 (1991), 14–20.
Roche., Maurice (2002) The Olympics and ‘Global Citizenship’. Citizenship Studies 6 (2):165-181. July 2002
Roche, S., Spake, D. F. and Joseph, M. (2013) ‘A model of sporting event tourism as economic development’, Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 3(2), pp. 147–157. DOI: 10.1108/20426781311325078.
Romaniuk, J. (2002) ‘Want to Make Your Brand Successful?’, B&T Weekly 11 October:12.

Sato, Mikihiro., Jeremy S. Jordan, Kyriaki Kaplanido, Daniel C. Funk. (2014). Determnants of Tourist’ Expenditure at Mass Participant Special Events: A Five-Year Analysis. Current Issues in Tourism. Volume 17,2014-Issue 9.
Schwark, Jurgen. (2007) ‘Sports Tourism: Introduction and Overview’, European Journal for Sport and Society, 4 (2), 117 - 132
Shonk., David. (2006) ' Perceptions of Service Quality, Satisfaction and The Intent to Return Among Tourists Attending A Sports Event'. Dissertation. Ohio State University.

Simpson, Penny M. Judy A. Siguaw. (2008). Destination Word of Mouth: The Role of Traveler Type, Residents, and Identity Salience. Journal of Travel Research Volume 47, Issue 2.

Solberg & Preuss 2007 Solberg, H. A., & Preuss, H. (2007). Major sport events and long-term tourism impacts. Journal of Sport Management, 21(2), 213–234.

Sou, V. and Wu, W. (2008), “An investigation of the effectiveness of destination loyalty in tourism sites:international travelers experiences in Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia”, Society for Marketing Advances Proceedings, Vol. 4 No. 23, pp. 343-354.

Stern, E., & Karkover, S. (1993). The formation of a composite urban image, Geographical Analysis, 25(2), 130-146.

Technavio Research 2020 Technavio Research. (2020). Sports Tourism Market 2019–2023. Retrieved from https://www.whatech. com/market-research/industrial/archive/436642-sports-tourism-market-estimated-to-be-worthus-800-billion-globally-according-to-new-research-report
Vegara-Ferri, J. M. et al. (2018) ‘The touristic impact of a sporting event attending to the future intentions of the participants’, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18(3), pp. 1356–1362. DOI: 10.7752/jpes.2018.s3201.
Vico, R. P., Uvinha, R. R., & Gustavo, N. (2018): Sports mega-events in the perception of the local community: the case of Itaquera region in São Paulo at the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil, Soccer & Society, DOI: 10.1080/14660970.2017.1419471
Vico, R. P., Uvinha, R. R., & Gustavo, N. (2019). Sports mega-events in the perception of the local community: the case of Itaquera region in São Paulo at the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil. Soccer & Society, 20(6), 810-823.
Vico et al., 2018  world cup sao paolo : Viglia et al. (2016)  Viglia, G., Minazzi, R., Buhalis, D., 2016, The influence of e-word-of-mouth on hotel occupancy rate, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol.28(9), pp. 2035 – 2051
Walmsley, D.J. and Jenkins, J.M. 1992. ‘Appraisive images of tourist areas: application of personal constructs. Australian Geographer. Volume 24, 1993. Issue 2.
Wang, Tz-Li., Phuong Thi Kim Tran, Tran Vinh (2017). Destination perceived quality, tourist satisfaction and word-of-mouth. Tourism Review 72(3):00-00. October 2017. 10.1108/TR-06-2017-0103
Wasilczuk and Zawadzki, 2013), The Attitude of Polish Entrepreneurs to the Fact of Staging the Mega Sport Event–the Case of Pomeranian SMEs Towards Euro 2012. Przedsiębiorstwo we współczesnej gospodarce-teoria i praktyka, (1), 16-23.
Wikarya, U., Widyasanti, A. A., Revindo, M. D., Siregar, C. H., & Dewi, C. E. (2022). Impact of International Sports Event on Local Businesses: Insight from the Stallholders and Official Partners of the 2018 Asian Games. JEJAK, 15(2), 336-353.
Xing and Chalip, 2006 MEDIA BRANDING Xing., Xiaoyan and Laurence Chalip. (2006). Effects of Hosting a Sport Event on Destination Brand: A test of Co-Branding and Match-up Models. Sport Management Review, 2006, 9, 49-78.
Zhang, Y. et al. (2014) ‘The Relationship among Service Quality, Satisfaction, and Future Attendance Intention: The Case of Shanghai ATP Masters 1000’, International Journal of Sports Science, 4(2), pp. 50–59. DOI: 10.5923/j.sports.20140402.03.
Zhou, Xiaoqian (2015), Expectation of Sport Event Tourism Experience. Master Thesis. Department of Service Management and Service Studies. Lund University
How to Cite
REVINDO, Mohamad Dian et al. Sports Event Satisfaction and Word-of-Mouth Intention. E-Journal of Tourism, [S.l.], p. 251-274, sep. 2023. ISSN 2407-392X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 30 may 2024. doi: