REVIEW: ANTOSIANIN DAN PEMANFAATANNYA

  • Melania Priska Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Flores, Jln. Sam Ratulangi Paupire Ende, 86318
  • Natalia Peni Program Studi Pendidikan Matematika Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Flores
  • Ludovicus Carvallo Program Studi Pendidikan Matematika Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Flores
  • Yulius Dala Ngapa Program Studi Pendidikan Fisika Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Flores

Abstract

ABSTRAK: Antosianin merupakan senyawa turunan polifenol yang keberadaannya sangat melimpah di alam dengan keanekaragaman dalam berbagai jenis tumbuhan dan memiliki banyak fungsi fisiologis penting pada setiap organisme hidup. Antosianin selain bertanggung jawab memberikan warna oranye hingga hitam pada tumbuhan tingkat tinggi, antosianin juga berperan sebagai pelindung dari adanya cekaman biotik dan abiotik; serta sebagai fotoprotektor terhadap radiasi sinar UV-B. Pemanfaataan antosianin pada tumbuhan lebih banyak dipergunakan dalam bidang pangan; kesehatan (sediaan farmasi); dan industri (kosmetik) karena tidak memiliki efek berbahaya. Efektifitas antosianin yang baik untuk menjaga kesehatan dan menurunkan kadar penyakit kronis yaitu apabila mengonsumsi antosianin pada wanita antara 19,8 – 64,9 mg dan pada pria sekitar 18,4 – 44,1 mg setiap hari.


Kata kunci: Antosianin, Biosintesis, dan Polifenol.


ABSTRACT: Anthocyanin is a polyphenol derivative compound whose existence is very abundant in nature within many kind of plants and has many important physiological functions on each living organisms. Anthocyanin in addition has been known that gives an orange color to black on higher grade plants and also has a role as a protection from the biotic and abiotic stress and as a photoprotector to UV-B radiation.  The applications of anthocyanin contained in plants are more likely to be used in food industries,  health purposes (pharmaceutical industries), and cosmetic industries due to their because they do not have harmful effects on humans. The good effectivity of anthocyanin to maintain the human health and can reduce the levels of chronic diseases if it is regurally consumed every day at dose of  19.8 - 64,9 mg for woman and  of  18,4 - 44,1 mg for man.


 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Melania Priska, Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Flores, Jln. Sam Ratulangi Paupire Ende, 86318

-

References

[1] Du, H., Wu, J., Ji, K. X., Zeng, Q. Y., Bhuiya, M. W., Su, S., Shu, Q. Y., Ren, H. X., Liu, Z. A., & Wang, L. S. 2015. Methylation Mediated by An Anthocyanin, O-Methyltransferase, Is Involved in Purple Flower Coloration in Paeonia. Journal of Experimental Botany 66 (21): 6563 – 6577.
[2] Saati, E. A., Theovilla, R. R. D., Simon, B. W., & Aulanni’am. 2011. Optimalisasi Fungsi Pigmen Bunga Mawar Sortiran sebagai Zat Pewarna Alami dan Bioaktif pada Beberapa Produk Industri. Jurnal Teknik Industri 12 (2): 133 – 140.
[3] Lee, Y. M., Yoon, Y., Yoon, H., Park, H. M., Song, S., & Yeum, K. J. 2017. Dietary Anthocyanins againts Obesity and Inflammation. Nutrients 9: 2 – 15. DOI: 10.3390/nu9101089.
[4] Santoni, A., Darwis, D., & Syahri, S. 2013. Isolasi Antosianin dari Buah Pucuk Merah (syzygium campanulatum korth.) serta Pengujian Antioksidan dan Aplikasi sebagai Perwarna Alami. Prosiding Seminar dan Rapat Tahunan Bidang MIPA BKS PTN Wilayah Barat Tahun 2013 1 - 10. ISBN: 978-602-98559-2-0.
[5] Barba-Espin, G., Glied, S., Crocoll, C., Dzhanfezova, T., Joernsgaard, B., Okkels, F., Lutken, H., & Muller, R. 2017. Foliar-Applied Ethephon Enhances The Content of Anthocyanin of Black Carrot Roots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.). BMC Plant Biology 17 (70): 1-11. DOI: 10.1186/s12870-017-1021-7.
[6] Bridgers, E. N., Chinn, M. S., & Truong, V. D. 2010. Extraction of Anthocyanins from Industrial Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Residues for Fermentable Sugars. Industrial Crops and Products 32: 613 – 620.
[7] Liu, X., Mu, T., Sun, H., Zhang, M., & Chen, J. 2013. Optimisation of Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction of Anthocyanins from Purple Sweet Potatoes by Response Surface Methodology. Food Chemistry 141: 3034 – 3041.
[8] Saati, E. A. 2014. Eksplorasi Pigmen Antosianin Bahan Hayati Lokal Pengganti Rodhamin B dan Uji Efektivitasnya pada Beberapa Produk Industri/Pangan. Jurnal Gamma 9 (2): 1 -12.
[9] Hambali, M., Mayasari, F., & Noermansyah, F. 2014. Ekstraksi Antosianin dari Ubi Jalar dengan Variasi Konsentrasi Solven, dan Lama Waktu Ekstraksi. Teknik Kimia 20 (2): 25 – 35.
[10] Santoso, W. E. A., & Estiasih, T. 2014. Kopigmentasi Ubi Jalar Ungu (Ipomoea batatas var. Ayamurasaki) dengan Kopigmen Na-Kaseinat dan Protein Whey serta Stabilitasnya terhadap Pemanasan. Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri 2 (4): 121 – 127.
[11] Trojak, M., & Skowron, E. 2017. Role of Anthocyanins in High-Light Stress Response. World Scientific News 81 (2): 150 – 168.
[12] Siregar, A. H. 2016. Pembuatan Zat Warna Alam dari Tumbuhan Berasal dari Daun. Bina Teknika 12 (1): 103 – 110.
[13] Rosyida, A., & Wedyatmo, D. A. 2014. Pemanfaatan Daun Jati Muda untuk Pewarnaan Kain Kapas pada Suhu Kamar. Arena Tekstil 29 (2): 115 – 124.
[14] Kamiloglu, S., Capanoglu, E., Grootaert, C., & Camp, J. V. 2015. Anthocyanin Absorption and Metabolism by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells-A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16: 21555 – 21574. ISSN: 1422-0067.
[15] Lukitasari, D. M., Indrawati, R., Chandra, R. D., Heriyanto, & Limantara, L. 2017. Mikroenkapsulasi Pigmen dari Kubis Merah: Studi Intensitas Warna dan Aktivitas Antioksidan. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan 28 (1): 1 – 9.
[16] Blando, F., Calabriso, N., Berland, H., Maiorano, G., Gerardi, C., Carluccio, M. A., & Andersen, O. M. 2018. Radical Scavenging and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Representative Anthocyanin Groupings from Pigment-Rich Fruits and Vegetables. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19 (169): 1 – 15. DOI: 10.3390/ijms19010169.
[17] Monica, S. H., & Avriliana, D. A. 2013. Penentuan Jenis Solven dan pH Optimum pada Analisis Senyawa Delphinidin dalam Kelopak Bunga Rosela dengan Metode Spektrofotometri UV-Vis. Jurnal Teknologi Kimia dan Industri 2 (2): 91 – 96.
[18] Mahmudatussa’adah, A., Fardiaz, D., Andarwulan, N., & Kusnandar, F. 2014. Karakteristik Warna dan Aktivitas Antosianin Ubi Jalar Ungu. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan 25 (2):176 – 184.
[19] Hardiyanti, Y., Darwis, D., & Santoni, A. 2013. Ekstraksi dan Uji Antioksidan Senyawa Antosianin dari Daun Miana (Coleus scutellarioides L (Benth).) serta Aplikasi pada Minuman. Jurnal Kimia Unand. 2 (2): 44 – 50.
[20] Farahmandazad, H. 2015. Recovery and Purification of Anthocyanins from Purple-Blue Potato. Thesis. Lappeenranta: Lappeenranta University of Technology.
[21] Husna, N. E., Novita, M., & Rohaya, S. 2013. Kandungan Antosianin dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Ubi Jalar Ungu Segar dan Produk Olahannya. Agritech 33 (3): 296 – 302.
[22] Kristiana, H. D., Ariviani, S., & Khasanah, L. U. 2012. Ekstraksi Pigmen Antosianin Buah Senggani (Melastoma malabathricum Auct. Non Linn) dengan Variasi Jenis Pelarut. Jurnal Teknosains Pangan 1 (1): 105 – 109.
[23] Sipahli, S., Mohanlall, V., & Mellem, J. J. 2017. Stability and Degradation Kinetics of Crude Anthocyanin Extract from H. Sabdariffa. Food Science and Technology 37 (2): 209 – 215.
[24] Pedro, A. C., Granato, D., & Rosso, N. D. 2016. Extraction of Anthocyanins and Polyphenols from Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Modeling and Assesing Their Reversibility and Stability. Food Chemistry 191: 12 – 20.
[25] Sitepu, R., Heryanto, Brotosudarmo, T. H. P., & Limantara, L. 2016. Karakterisasi Antosianin Buah Murbei Spesies Morus alba dan Morus cathayana di Indonesia. Journal of Natural Science 5 (2): 158 – 171.
[26] Marszalek, K., Wozniak, L., Kruszewski, B., & Skapska, S. 2017. The Effect of High Pressure Techniques on the Stability of Anthocyanins in Fruit and Vegetables. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18: 1 – 23. DOI: 10.3390/ijms18020277.
[27] Babaloo, F., & Jamei, R. 2018. Anthocyanin Pigment Stability of Cornus mas-Macrocarpa under Treatment with pH and Some Organic Acids. Food Science and Nutrition 6: 168 - 173. DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.542.
[28] Ali, F., Ferawati, & Arqomah, R. 2013. Ekstraksi Zat Warna dari Kelopak Bunga Rosella (Studi Pengaruh Konsentrasi Asam Asetat dan Asam Sitrat). Jurnal Teknik Kimia 19 (1): 26 – 33.
[29] Fathinatullabibah, Kawiji, & Khasanah, L. U. 2014. Stabilitas Antosianin Ekstrak Daun Jati (Tectona grandis) terhadap Perlakuan pH dan Suhu. Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan 3 (2): 60 – 63.
[30] Djamil, L., Bahri, S., & Nurhaeni. 2015. Analisis Retensi Antosianin dalam Proses Pembuatan dan Penyimpanan Bubur Instan Ubi Jalar Ungu (Ipomoea batatas). Jurnal of Natural Science 4 (3): 322 – 328.
[31] Munawaroh, H., Fadillah, G., Saputri, L. N. M. Z., Hanif, Q. A., Hidayat, R., & Wahyuningsih, S. 2015. Kopigmentasi dan Uji Stabilitas Warna Antosianin dari Isolasi Kulit Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.). Prosiding Seminar nasional Matematika, Sains dan Informatika 321 – 329. ISBN: 978-602-18580-3-5.
[32] Geetha, M., Ponmozhi, P., Saravanakumar, M., & Suganyadevi, P. 2011. Extraction of Anthocyanin and Analyzing Its Antioxidant Properties from Different Onion (Allium cepa) Varieties. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2 (3): 497 – 506.
[33] Campanella, J. J., Smalley, J. V., & Dempsey, M. E. 2014. A Phylogenetic Examination of the Primary Anthocyanin Production Pathway of the Plantae. Botanical Studies 55 (10): 1 – 10.
[34] Tanaka, S., Brefort, T., Neidig, N., Djamei, A., Kahnt, J., Vermerris, W., Koenig, S., Feussner, K., Feussner, I., & Kahmann, R. 2014. A Secreted Ustilago Maydis Effector Promotes Virulence by Targeting Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Maize. eLife Journal 1 – 27. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.01355.
[35] Rosyida, Nugroho, A. S., & Dewi, E. R. S. 2017. Bobot Basah dan Kandungan Antosianin Daun Tanaman Bayam Merah (Alternanthera amoena Voss) pada Variasi Dosis Aplikasi Pupuk NPK Majemuk dan PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria). Prosiding Seminar Sains & Entrepreneurship IV 431 – 441.
[36] Wang, S., Chu, Z., Ren, M., Jia, R., Zhao, C., Fei, D., Su, H., Fan, X., Zhang, X., Li, Y., Wang, Y., & Ding, X. 2017. Identification of Anthocyanin Activator in Solanum nigrum Fruits. Molecules 22: 2 – 14. DOI: 10.3390/molecules22060876.
[37] Wang, X., Hansen, C., & Allen, K. 2013. Identification of Anthocyanins Isolated from Black Bean Canning Wastewater by Macroporous Resin Using Optimized Condition. Food and Nutrition Sciences 4: 174 – 181.
[38] Barrowclough, R. A. 2015. The Effect of Berry Consumption on Cancer Risk. Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Engineering 2 (1): 1 - 9.
[39] Han, F., Ju, Y., Ruan, X., Zhao, X., Yue, X., Zhuang, X., Qin, M., & Fang, Y. 2017. Color, Anthocyanin, and Antioxidant Characteristics of Young Wine Produced from Spine Grapes (Vitis davidii Foex) in China. Food & Nutrition Research 61: 1 – 11.
[40] Siti Azima, A. M., Noriham, A., & Manshoor, N. 2014. Anthocyanin Content in Relation to The Antioxidant Activity and Colour Properties of Garcinia mangostana pell, Syzigium cumini and Clitoria ternatea Extracts. International Food Research Journal 21 (6): 2369 – 2375.
[41] Chaiyasut, C., Sivamaruthi, B. S., Pengkumsri, N., Sirilun, S., Peerajan, S., Chaiyasut, K., & Kesika, P. 2016. Anthocyanin Profile and Its Antioxidant Activity of Widely Used Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers in Thailand. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 9 (6): 218 – 224.
[42] Wallace, T. C. 2011. Anthocyanins in Cardiovascular Disease. American Society for Nutrition. Adv. Nutr. 2: 1 – 7. DOI: 10.3945/an.110.000042.
[43] Wahyuningsih, S., Wulandari, L., Wartono, M. W., Munawaroh, H., & Ramelan, A. H. 2016. The Effect of pH and Color Stability of Anthocyanin on Food Colorant. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 193: 1 – 10. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/193/1/012047.
[44] Forbes-Hernandez, T. Y., Gasparrini, M., Afrin, S., Cianciosi, D., Gonzalez-Paramas, A. M., Santos-Buelga, C., Mezzetti, B., Quiles, J. L., Battino, M., Giampieri, F., & Bompadre, S. 2017. Strawberry (cv. Romina) Methanolic Extract and Anthocyanin-Enriched Fraction Improve Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in HepG2 Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18: 1 – 17. DOI: 10.3390/ijms18061149.
[45] Hariyanto, A., Fatmawati, H., & Sugiyanta. 2012. Ubi Jalar Ungu sebagai Stimulator Kemampuan Angiogenesis pada Tikus Model Diabetik. UNEJ Jurnal 1 (1): 1 – 4.
[46] Ariesty, C. P., Sugiyanta, & Fatmawati, H. 2014. Pengaruh Ekstrak Air Ubi Jalar Ungu (Ipomoea batatas L.) terhadap Jumlah Endhotelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) pada Tikus Wistar Diabetes Melitus. e-Jurnal Pustaka Kesehatan 2 (3): 387 – 391.
[47] Kusumastuti, I. R. 2014. Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn) Effects on Lowering Blood Pressure as a Treatment for Hypertension. J Majority 3 (7): 70 – 74.
[48] Khoo, H. E., Azlan, A., Tang, S. T., & Lim, S. M. 2017. Anthocyanidins and Anthocyanins: Colored Pigments as Food, Pharmaceutical Ingredients, and The Potential Health Benefits. Food & Nutrition Research 61: 1 – 21.
[49] Sigarlaki, E. D., & Tjiptaningrum, A. 2016. Pengaruh Pemberian Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus) terhadap Kadar Kolestrol Total. Majority 5 (5): 14 – 17.
[59] Ganesan, K., & Xu, B. 2017. A Critical Review on Polyphenols and Health Benefits of Black Soybeans. Nutrients 9: 1 – 17. DOI: 10.3390/nu9050455.
[60] Prakosa, A. G., Ratnawati, R., & Prabawati, R. K. 2017. Pengaruh Antosianin Ubi Ungu (Ipomoea batatas L.) Kultivar Gunung Kawi terhadap Ekspresi Caspase-3 pada Jaringan Otak Tikus Model DM Tipe 2. Majalah Kesehatan FKUB 4 (2): 52 – 58.
[61] Monteiro e Silva, S. A., Michniak-Kohn, B., & Leonardi, G. R. 2017. An Overview about Oxidation in Clinical Practice of Skin Aging. Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia 92 (3): 367 – 374.
[62] Spinola, V., Pinto, J., & Castilho, P. C. 2018. Hypoglycemic, Anti-Glycation and Antioxidant In Vitro Properties of Two Vaccinium Species from Macaronesia: A Relation to Their Phenolic Composition. Journal of Functional Foods 40: 595 – 605.
[63] Valenza, A., Bonfanti, C., Pasini, M. E., & Bellosta, P. 2018. Anthocyanins Function as Anti-Inflammatory Agents in a Drosophila Model for Adipose Tissue Macrophage Infiltration. BioMed Research International 1 – 9. ID: 6413172.
[64] Westfall, A. 2015. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Anthocyanins as Biologically Active Ingredients in Lipstick Formulations. Thesis. Ohio: Ohio State University.
[65] Pangaribuan, L. 2016. Pemanfaatan Masker Bunga Rosela untuk Pencerahan Kulit Wajah. Jurnal Keluarga Sehat Sejahtera 14 (28): 46 – 58.
[66] Ekawati, P., Rostiati, & Syahraeni. 2015. Aplikasi Ekstrak Kulit Buah Naga sebagai Pewarna Alami pada Susu Kedelai dan Santan. e-J. Agrotekbis 3 (2): 198 – 205.
[67] Wulandari, R., Krisno, M. A., & Waluyo, L. 2016. Pengaruh Berbagai Konsentrasi Ekstrak Bunga Mawar Merah (Rosa damascena Mill) terhadap Stabilitas Warna Antosianin Agar-Agar sebagai Sumber Belajar Biologi. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia 2 (1): 48 – 56.
[68] Rahmawati, H. S., Susilowati, A., & Harianti. 2017. Ekstrak Bunga Mawar Merah (Rose damascene Mill) sebagai Pewarna Alami dalam Pembuatan Es Krim Rumput Laut (Eucheuma spinosum). Jurnal Balik Diwa 8 (1): 13 – 22.
[69] Sa’ati, E. A., Khoridah, I. A., Wachid, M., & Winarsih, S. 2016. Kopigmentasi Tiga Ekstrak Antosianin dengan Secang (Caesalpania sappan L.) dan Aplikasinya pada Permen Jelly Sirsak. Prosiding Seminar nasional dan Gelar Produk 178 – 186.
[70] Cortez, R., Luna-Vital, D. A., Margulis, D., & de Mejia, E. G. 2017. Natural Pigments: Stabilization Methods of Anthocyanins for Food Applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 16: 180 – 198. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12244.
[71] Sueprasarn, J., Reabroy, S., & Pirak, T. 2017. Antioxidant Properties of Karanda (Carissa carandas Linn.) Extracts and Its Application in Thai Traditional Fermented Pork Sauge (Nahm). International Food Research Journal 24 (4): 1667 – 1675.
[72] Hidayah, T., Pratjojo, W., & Widiarti, N. 2014. Uji Stabilitas Pigmen dan Antioksidan Ekstrak Zat Warna Alami Kulit Buah Naga. Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science 3 (2): 135 – 140.
[73] Saira, S., & Kamran, K. M. 2017. Stability of Anthocyanins from Syzygium cumini (Jamun) at Different Processing Condition. J. Food Technol Pres 2 (1): 1 – 5.
[74] Agustin, D., & Ismiyati. 2015. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Pelarut pada Proses Ekstraksi Antosianin dari Bunga Kembang Sepatu. Konversi 4 (2): 9 – 16.
[75] Amaliyah, E. R., & Pritasari, O. K. 2018. Pengaruh Perbandingan Proporsi Bubuk Kulit Buah Naga (Hylocereus polyrhizus) dengan Mordan Tunjung (FE(SO4)) terhadap Hasil Pewarnaan Alami Rambut. e-Jurnal Mahasiswa Unesa 7 (1): 62 – 69.
[76] Erwin, Nur, M. A., & Panggabean, A. S. 2015. Potensi Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Kubis Ungu (Brassica oleracea L.) sebagai Indikator Asam Basa Alami. Jurnal Kimia Mulawarman 13(1): 15 – 18.
[77] Ananta, R. 2016. Film Berbasis Ekstrak Antosianin Ubi Jalar Ungu (Ipomoea batatas var. Ayumurasaki) sebagai Bioindikator Kerusakan pada Daging Ayam. Skripsi. Semarang: Universitas Negeri Semarang.
[78] Kim, S., Hwang, G., Lee, S., Zhu, J. Y., Paik, I., Nguyen, T. T., Kim, J., & Oh, E. 2017. High Ambient Temperature Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis through Degradation of HY5. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 1 – 11. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2017.01787.
[79] Huang, B. H., Chen, Y. W., Huang, C. L., Gao, L., & Liao, P. C. 2016. Diversifying Selection of The Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Downstream Gene UFGT Accelerates Floral Diversity of Island Scutellaria Species. BMC Evolutionary Biology 16 (191): 2 – 13.
[80] Jiao, Y., Ma, R. J., Shen, Z. J., Yan, J., & Yu, M. L. 2014. Gene Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Two Blood-Flesh Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) Cultivars during Fruit Development. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science B (Biomedicine & Biotechnology) 15 (9): 809 – 819.
[81] Kovacs, Z., Csillery, G., Szoke, A., Kiss, E., & Veres, A. 2017. Characteristics and Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Pepper. Columella – Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 4 (1): 47 – 58.
[82] Liu, F., Yang, Y., Gao, J., Ma, C., & Bi, Y. 2018. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of A Wild Purple Potato and Its Red Mutant Provides Insight into The Mechanism of Anthocyanin Transformation. Plos One 13 (1): 1 – 19.
[83] Butelli, E., Garcia-Lor, A., Licciardello, C., Casas, G. L., Hill, L., Recupero, G. R., Keremane, M. L., Ramadugu, C., Krueger, R., Xu, Q., Deng, X., Fanciullino, A. L., Froelicher, Y., Navarro, L., & Martin, C. 2017. Changes in Anthocyanin Production during Domestication of Citrus. Plant Physiology 173: 2225 – 2242.
[84] Pandey, A., Misra, P., Bhambhani, S., Bhatia, C., & Trivedi, P. K. 2014. Expression of Arabidopsis MYB Transcription Factor, AtMYB111, in Tobacco Requires Light to Modulate Flavonol Content. Scientific Reports 4: 1 – 10. DOI: 10.1038/srep05018.
[85] Outchkourov, N. S., Karlova, R., Holscher, M., Schrama, X., Blilou, I., Jongedijk, E., Simon, C. D., van Dijk, A. D. J., Bosch, D., Hall, R. D., & Beekwilder, J. 2018. Transcription Factor-Mediated Control of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Vegetative Tissues. Plant Physiology 176: 1862 – 1878.
[86] Martin, J., Navas, M. J., Jimenez-Moreno, A. M., & Asuero, A. G. 2017. Anthocyanin Pigments: Importance, Sample Preparation and Extraction. Chapter 5: Phenolic Compound – Natural Sources, Importance and Application 117 - 152. DOI: 10.5772/66892.
[87] Djaeni, M., Ariani, A., Hidayat, R., & Utari, F. D. 2017. Ekstraksi Antosianin dari Kelopak Bunga Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Berbantu Ultrasonik: Tinjauan Aktivitas Antioksidan. Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan 6 (3): 148 – 151.
[88] Sangadji, I., Rijal, M., & Kusuma, Y. A. 2017. Kandungan Antosianin di Dalam Mahkota Bunga Beberapa Tanaman Hias. Jurnal Biology Science & Education 6 (2): 118 – 128.
[89] Ahmadiani, N., Robbins, R. J., Collins, T. M., & Giusti, M. M. 2014. Anthocyanins Contents, Profiles, and Color Characteristics of Red Cabbage Extracts from Different Cultivar and Maturity Stages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62: 7524 – 7531.
[90] Inggrid, H. M., & Santoso, H. 2015. Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Senyawa Bioaktif dalam Buah Stroberi. Laporan Penelitian: Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat. Bandung: Universitas Katolik Parahyangan.
[91] Pebrianti, C., Ainurrasyid, R. B., & Purnamaningsih, S. L. 2015. Uji Kadar Antosianin dan Hasil Enam Varietas Tanaman Bayam Merah (Altenanthera amoena Voss) pada Musim Hujan. Jurnal Produksi Tanaman 3 (1): 27 – 33.
[92] Winata, E. W., & Yunianta. 2015. Ekstraksi Antosianin Buah Murbei (Morus alba L.) Metode Ultrasonic Bath (Kajian Waktu dan Rasio Bahan : Pelarut). Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri 3 (2): 773 – 783.
[93] Armanzah, R. S., & Hendrawati, T. Y. 2016. Pengaruh Waktu Maserasi Zat Antosianin sebagai Pewarna Alami dari Ubi Jalar Ungu (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir). Jurnal Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta 1 – 10. e-ISSN: 2460 – 8416.
[94] Hasidah, Murkalina, & Rousdy, D. W. 2017. Kandungan Pigmen Klorofil, Karotenoid dan Antosianin Daun Caladium. Protobiont 6 (2): 29 – 37.
[95] Anggraini, T., Kurniawan, Y., Yenrina, R., & Sayuti, K. 2018. Effect of ‘Jamblang’ (Syzygium cumini) Peel and Citric Acid Addition on Antioxidant Activity of ‘Kolang-Kaling’ Jam. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 17 (3): 140 – 145.
[96] Winarti, S., Sarofa, U., & Rodiyah, K. F. 2018. Karakteristik Jelly Drink Sinbiotik dari Susu Kedelai dan Ekstrak Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus Polyrhizus). Agrointek 12 (1): 72 – 83.
[97] Zulfajri, M., & Muttakin. 2018. Activity Analysis of Anthocyanin from Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels as A Natural Indicator in Acid Base Titration. Rasayan J. Chem. 11 (1): 135 – 141.
[98] Lestario, L. N., Rahayuni, E., & Timotius, K. H. 2011. Kandungan Antosianin dan Identifikasi Antosianidin dari Kulit Buah Jenitri (Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume). Agritech 31 (2): 93 – 101.
[99] Handayani, P. A., & Rahmawati, A. 2012. Pemanfaatan Kulit Buah Naga (Dragon Fruit) sebagai Pewarna Alami Makanan Pengganti Pewarna Sintetis. Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan 1 (2): 19 – 24.
[100] Farida, R., & Nisa, F. C. 2015. Ekstraksi Antosianin Limbah Kulit Manggis Metode Microwave Assisted Extraction (Lama Ekstraksi dan Rasio Bahan : Pelarut). Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri 3 (2): 362 – 373.
[101] Putri, N. K. M., Gunawan, I. W. G., & Suarsa, I. W. 2015. Aktivitas Antioksidan Antosianin dalam Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Naga Super Merah (Hylocereus costaricensis) dan Analisis Kadar Totalnya. Jurnal Kimia 9 (2): 243 – 251.
[102] Morais, C. A., de Rosso, V. V., Estadella, D., Pisani, L. P. 2016. Anthocyanins as Inflammatory Modulators and The Role of The Gut Microbiota. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 33: 1 – 7.
[103] Anggriani, R., Ain, N., & Adnan, S. 2017. Identifikasi Fitokimia dan Karakterisasi Antosianin dari Sabut Kelapa Hijau (Cocos nucifera L. var. Varidis). Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian 18 (3): 163 – 172.
[104] Perkins-Veazie, P., Ma, G., & Werner, D. 2017. Anthocyanin Pigments in Redbud (Cercis spp) Flowers. Journal of Holticultural Science and Research 1 (1): 13 – 18.
[105] Ramirez, L. B., Salcedo, H. E. R., Aulis, M. F. F., Lopez, M. A. R., Ocana, A. N., & Radillo, J. J. V. 2018. Anthocyanins from Rose Maize (Zea mays L.) Grains. Interciencia 43 (3): 188 – 192.
[106] Nursa’adah, I., Basuki, N., & Sugiharto, A. N. 2017. Keragaman Galur Inbrida Generasi S3 Jagung Ungu (Zea mays var Ceratina Kulesh). Jurnal Produksi Tanaman 5 (3): 506 – 514.
[107] Kristamtini, Taryono, Basunanda, P., & Murti, R. H. 2017. Korelasi Kandungan Antosianin Total dengan Peubah Warna (L*, a*, dan b*) dan Penanda Mikrosatelit pada Beras Hitam. Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan 1 (2): 115 – 124.
[108] Ponnappan, S., Thangavel, A., & Sahu, O. 2017. Anthocyanin, Lutein, Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Actvity of Black, Red and White Pigmented Rice Varieties. Food Sciences and Nutrition Studies 1 (1): 43 – 49.
Published
2019-02-07
How to Cite
PRISKA, Melania et al. REVIEW: ANTOSIANIN DAN PEMANFAATANNYA. CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry), [S.l.], v. 6, n. 2, p. 79-97, feb. 2019. ISSN 2302-7274. Available at: <https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/cakra/article/view/46629>. Date accessed: 13 june 2024.