Pengaruh Pemberian Uap Etanol dan Pelapisan Kitosan terhadap Mutu dan Masa Simpan Buah Manggis (Garcinia Mangostana L.)

  • Kadek Arista Pradika Program Studi Teknik Pertanian dan Biosistem, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Badung, Bali, Indonesia.
  • I Made Supartha Utama Program Studi Teknik Pertanian dan Biosistem, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Badung, Bali, Indonesia.
  • I Wayan Tika Program Studi Teknik Pertanian dan Biosistem, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Badung, Bali, Indonesia.

Abstract

Abstrak


Manggis merupakan buah tropis yang memiliki potensi yang tinggi sebagai komoditas ekspor, namun kendalanya cepat mengalami kemunduran mutu akibat proses fisiologis pascapanennya. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efektivitas perlakuan uap etanol dan pelapisan kitosan dalam memperlambat kemunduran mutu dan memperpanjang masa simpan buah manggis. Analisis menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial dengan dua faktor perlakuan. Faktor pertama pemberian uap etanol yang berasal dari penguapan larutan etanol dengan konsentrasi 0%, 5%, dan 10% dan faktor kedua pelapisan kitosan dengan konsentrasi 0%, 1.25%, dan 1.5%. Parameter penelitian yaitu susut bobot, intensitas kerusakan, color difference, kekerasan buah, nilai total asam, total padatan terlarut dan uji organoleptik terhadap warna daging buah, rasa daging buah, aroma daging buah. Pengamatan dilakukan selama 25 hari penyimpanan pada suhu ruang (28-31ºC). Hasil penelitian menunjukan pemberian uap etanol secara tunggal berpengaruh nyata terhadap susut bobot sedangkan pelapisan kitosan secara tunggal berpengaruh nyata terhadap total asam dan total padatan terlarut. Interaksi pemberian uap etanol dan pelapisan kitosan berpengaruh nyata terhadap susut bobot, intensitas kerusakan, color difference, kekerasan buah, dan organoleptik terhadap warna daging buah, rasa daging buah, serta aroma daging buah. Perlakuan E2C1 merupakan kombinasi terbaik yang mampu mempertahankan mutu dan masa simpan buah manggis hingga 10 hari, karena memiliki nilai perubahan paling rendah pada parameter yang diamati seperti susut bobot, intensitas kerusakan, color difference, kekerasan buah, dan memiliki nilai organoleptic tertinggi terhadap warna, rasa, serta aroma daging buah. Perlakuan E2C1 mampu mempertahankan visual buah hingga hari ke-10 berdasarkan warna buah, tekstur buah dan kerusakan seperti muculnya busuk buah.


Abstract


Mangosteen is a tropical fruit with a high potential to be an export commodity, but the problem is that it quickly declines in quality due to its postharvest physiological process. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ethanol vapor treatment and chitosan coating in slowing down quality deterioration and extending the shelf life of mangosteen fruit. Analysis used a factorial completely randomized design with two treatment factors. The first factor was giving ethanol vapor from the evaporation of ethanol solution with concentrations of 0%, 5%, and 10%; and the second factor was chitosan coating with concentrations of 0%, 1.25%, and 1.5%. The parameters were weight loss, the intensity of damage, color difference, fruit hardness, total acid value, total dissolved solids, and organoleptic tests on the color of the flesh, the flesh taste, and the flesh aroma. Observations were for 25 days of storage at room temperature (28-31ºC). The results showed that the single application of ethanol vapor had a significant effect on weight loss, while the single chitosan coating had a significant effect on the total acid and total dissolved solids. The ethanol vapor and chitosan coating interaction had a significant effect on weight loss, the intensity of damage, color difference, fruit hardness, and organoleptic the flesh color, flesh taste, and the aroma of the flesh. Treatment E2C1 was the best combination because able to maintain the quality and shelf life of mangosteen fruit up to 10 days. It had the lowest value of changes in the observed parameters such as weight loss, the intensity of damage, color difference, fruit hardness, and the highest organoleptic values ??for color, taste, and aroma of fruit flesh. The E2C1 treatment was able to maintain the visual appearance of the fruit until the 10th day based on fruit color, texture, and damage such as fruit rot.

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Published
2022-02-27
How to Cite
PRADIKA, Kadek Arista; UTAMA, I Made Supartha; TIKA, I Wayan. Pengaruh Pemberian Uap Etanol dan Pelapisan Kitosan terhadap Mutu dan Masa Simpan Buah Manggis (Garcinia Mangostana L.). Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian), [S.l.], v. 11, n. 1, p. 56 - 66, feb. 2022. ISSN 2502-3012. Available at: <https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/beta/article/view/82124>. Date accessed: 04 oct. 2022.
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Articles