Pengaruh Kebijakan, Regulasi, dan Anggaran Terhadap Perkembangan Kapasitas PLTS di Australia

  • Giusna Dipankara Kusnandar Universitas Udayana
  • I Nyoman Satya Kumara, ST., MSc., PhD Universitas Udayana
  • I Wayan Sukerayasa, MT Universitas Udayana

Abstract

Australia is one of the countries with the highest solar PV capacity in the world. The capacity of solar PV installed in Australia has reached 16,319 MW and 600 W per capita at the end of 2019, making Australia the country with the highest per-capita capacity in the world. The Australian Government has established policies, regulations, and budgets as commitments to support the achievement of the solar PV capacity. This paper reviews and analyzes policies, regulations, and funds in Australia from federal to state levels on the side of solar PV development. Analysis showed that policies and regulations supported by the suitability of the government budget have a consequential effect on increasing the capacity of solar PV to implement and realize renewable energy targets in Australia. Several policies aforementioned as Feed-in Tariff, RET, NSSP, and budgets that focus on R&D have a significant impact on increasing the capacity of solar PV installed. Thus, realistic targets that are phased in, structured policy and regulatory support, budget compliance, and continuous education to the public are essential aspects that could be adopted in Indonesia to accelerate the realization of the national solar PV capacity target.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

[1] Australian Government, “Our country,” 2020. https://info.australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[2] C. F. Pain, B. J. Pillans, L. Worrall, and J. R. Wilford, “Old, Flat and Red —Australia’s Distinctive Landscape,” in Shaping a Nation: A Geology of Australia, 2012, pp. 227–275.
[3] Australian Government, “The Australian continent,” 2020. https://info.australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/the-australian-continent (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[4] Geoscience Australia, “Deserts,” 2020. http://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/national-location-information/landforms/deserts (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[5] R. Blewett, Ed., Shaping a Nation: A Geology of Australia. ANU Press, 2012.
[6] Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, “Australian Climate Averages - Climate classifications,” 2016. http://www.bom.gov.au/jsp/ncc/climate_averages/climate-classifications/index.jsp (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[7] Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, “Australian Climate Averages - Sunshine Hours,” 2016. http://www.bom.gov.au/jsp/ncc/climate_averages/sunshine-hours/index.jsp?period=an#maps (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[8] Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, “Australian Climate Averages - Solar exposure,” 2020. http://www.bom.gov.au/jsp/ncc/climate_averages/solar-exposure/index.jsp (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[9] Australian Bureau of Statistics, “National, state and territory population, March 2020,” Mar. 2020. https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/population/national-state-and-territory-population/mar-2020 (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[10] World Bank, “GDP (current US$) - Australia,” 2020. https://data.worldbank.org (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[11] World Bank, “GDP per capita (current US$) - Australia,” 2020. https://data.worldbank.org/ (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[12] S. T. Chen, H. I. Kuo, and C. C. Chen, “The relationship between GDP and electricity consumption in 10 Asian countries,” Energy Policy, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 2611–2621, Apr. 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2006.10.001.
[13] Australian Energy Regulator, “Annual Electricity Consumption (NEM),” 2020. https://www.aer.gov.au/wholesale-markets/wholesale-statistics/annual-electricity-consumption-nem (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[14] Clean Energy Council, “Clean Energy Australia Report 2018,” Melbourne, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://assets.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/documents/resources/reports/clean-energy-australia/clean-energy-australia-report-2018.pdf.
[15] Clean Energy Council, “Clean Energy Australia Report 2019,” Melbourne, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://assets.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/documents/resources/reports/clean-energy-australia/clean-energy-australia-report-2019.pdf.
[16] Clean Energy Council, “Clean Energy Australia Report 2020,” Melbourne, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://assets.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/documents/resources/reports/clean-energy-australia/clean-energy-australia-report-2020.pdf.
[17] R. Egan, E. Kallmier, O. Ashby, L. Koschier, and R. Passey, “PV in Australia Report 2019,” 2020. [Online]. Available: https://iea-pvps.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/NSR_Australia-2019.pdf.
[18] Australian Renewable Energy Agency, “Australian PV Institute (APVI) Solar Map, funded by the Australian Renewable Energy Agency,” 2020. pv-map.apvi.org.au (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[19] Clean Energy Regulator, “History of the scheme,” 2016. http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/RET/About-the-Renewable-Energy-Target/History-of-the-scheme (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[20] Clean Energy Regulator, “About the Renewable Energy Target,” 2018. http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/RET/About-the-Renewable-Energy-Target (accessed Dec. 05, 2020).
[21] IESR, “Indonesia Clean Energy Outlook: Tracking Progress and Review of Clean Energy Development in Indonesia,” Jakarta, 2019. [Online]. Available: www.iesr.or.id.
[22] A. A. G. A. Pawitra Putra, I. N. S. Kumara, and W. G. Ariastina, “Review Perkembangan PLTS di Provinsi Bali Menuju Target Kapasitas 108 MW Tahun 2025,” Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 181–188, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.24843/mite.2020.v19i02.p09.
[23] Australian House of Representatives, “Infosheet 20 - The Australian System of Government,” 2020. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/House_of_Representatives/Powers_practice_and_procedure/00_-_Infosheets/Infosheet_20_-_The_Australian_system_of_government (accessed Jan. 25, 2021).
[24] Parliamentary Education Office, “Australian System of Government,” 2020. https://peo.gov.au/understand-our-parliament/how-parliament-works/system-of-government/australian-system-of-government/ (access-ed Jan. 25, 2021).
[25] Parliamentary Education Office, “Three levels of government: governing Australia,” 2020. https://peo.gov.au/understand-our-parliament/how-parliament-works/three-levels-of-government/three-levels-of-government-governing-australia/ (accessed Jan. 25, 2021).
[26] Energy Facts Australia, “Australia’s Energy System,” 2018. https://www.energyfactsaustralia.org.au/explainers/australias-energy-system/ (accessed Jan. 26, 2021).
[27] Australian Energy Market Commission, “Electricity supply chain,” 2021. https://www.aemc.gov.au/energy-system/electricity/electricity-system/electricity-supply-chain (accessed Jan. 26, 2021).
[28] Australian Energy Market Operator, “AEMO | Who we are,” 2020. https://aemo.com.au/about/who-we-are (accessed Jan. 26, 2021).
[29] Australian Energy Market Operator, “Fact Sheet The Wholesale Electricity Market (WEM) Western Australia,” Melbourne, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.aemo.com.au/-/media/Files/About_AEMO/About_The_Industry/Wholesale-Electricity-Market-Fact-Sheet.pdf.
[30] Australian Government, “Electricity generation,” 2020. https://www.energy.gov.au/data/electricity-generation (accessed Jan. 27, 2021).
[31] United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, “Australia.” https://unfccc.int/node/28580 (accessed Jan. 28, 2021).
[32] The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, “Paris climate agreement: a quick guide,” 2017. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1718/Quick_Guides/ParisAgreement (accessed Jan. 28, 2021).
[33] Australian Government, “National Energy Productivity Plan,” 2020. https://www.energy.gov.au/government-priorities/energy-productivity-and-energy-efficiency/national-energy-productivity-plan (accessed Jan. 29, 2021).
[34] Australian Government, “National Energy Productivity Plan 2015–2030,” Canberra, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.scer.gov.au/workstreams/energy-market-reform/national-energy-productivity-plan/.
[35] Australian Government, “Renewable Energy Target scheme,” 2020. https://www.industry.gov.au/funding-and-incentives/renewable-energy-target-scheme (accessed Jan. 29, 2021).
[36] Geoscience Australia, “Solar Energy,” 2021. https://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/energy/resources/other-renewable-energy-resources/solar-energy (accessed Feb. 03, 2021).
[37] Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, “Australian Climate Averages - Relative humidity (9am and 3pm) maps,” 2016. http://www.bom.gov.au/jsp/ncc/climate_averages/relative-humidity/index.jsp (accessed Feb. 03, 2021).
[38] Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, “Climate Maps - Solar Exposure Latest,” 2021. http://www.bom.gov.au/jsp/awap/solar/index.jsp (accessed Feb. 03, 2021).
[39] Australian Renewable Energy Agency, “Australian PV Institute (APVI) Solar Map, funded by the Australian Renewable Energy Agency,” 2021. pv-map.apvi.org.au (accessed Mar. 02, 2021).
[40] Australian Bureau of Statistics, “National, state and territory population, September 2020,” Mar. 18, 2021. https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/population/national-state-and-territory-population/latest-release (accessed Apr. 08, 2021).
[41] Australian Bureau of Statistics, “Australian National Accounts: State Accounts, 2019-20,” Nov. 20, 2020. https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/economy/national-accounts/australian-national-accounts-state-accounts/2019-20 (accessed Apr. 10, 2021).
[42] R. Ferroukhi, P. Frankl, and C. Lins, “Renewable Energy Policies in a Time of Transition,” Abu Dhabi, 2018. [Online]. Available: www.irena.org.
[43] International Energy Agency, “Policy database of Australia – Data & Statistics,” 2020. https://www.iea.org/policies?country=Australia (acc-essed Mar. 29, 2021).
[44] Australian Government, “Mandatory Renewable Energy Target Review - Home Page,” 2004. https://web.archive.org/web/20091024032027/http://mretreview.gov.au/ (accessed Mar. 29, 2021).
[45] Australian Government, “Office of the Renewable Energy Regulator (ORER),” 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20091024092019/http://orer.gov.au/ (accessed Mar. 29, 2021).
[46] Australian Government, “Clean Energy Target,” 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20071014052139/http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/energy/cet/index.html (accessed Mar. 29, 2021).
[47] International Energy Agency, “Green Loans Programme for Households,” 2017. https://www.iea.org/policies/450-green-loans-programme-for-households (accessed Mar. 29, 2021).
[48] Australian Government, “National Solar Schools Program,” 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20140330114159/http://ee.ret.gov.au/energy-efficiency/grants/national-solar-schools-program (accessed Mar. 29, 2021).
[49] International Energy Agency, “Solar Credits,” 2020. https://www.iea.org/policies/4868-solar-credits (accessed Mar. 29, 2021).
[50] REN21, “Renewable 2020 Global Status Report,” Paris, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.ren21.net/gsr-2020/.
[51] Clean Energy Council, “Western Australia planning for a future built on renewables,” 2020. https://www.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/news/western-australia-planning-for-a-future-built-on-renewables (accessed Mar. 30, 2021).
[52] Victoria State Government, “Sustainability Victoria Act 2005,” 2005. https://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/in-force/acts/sustainability-victoria-act-2005/001 (accessed Mar. 30, 2021).
[53] International Energy Agency, “Queensland Smart Energy Policy,” 2019. https://www.iea.org/policies/4727-queensland-smart-energy-policy (accessed Mar. 30, 2021).
[54] Queensland Government, “Solar Bonus Scheme,” 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130813014050/http://www.dews.qld.gov.au/energy-water-home/electricity/solar-bonus-scheme (accessed Mar. 30, 2021).
[55] Government of New South Wales, “The solar bonus scheme is closed,” 2019. https://energysaver.nsw.gov.au/households/solar-and-battery-power/solar-bonus-scheme-closed (accessed Mar. 30, 2021).
[56] Government of South Australia, “Solar feed-in payments,” 2018. https://www.sa.gov.au/topics/energy-and-environment/energy-bills/solar-feed-in-payments (accessed Mar. 31, 2021).
[57] Victoria State Government, “Victorian Feed-in Tariff Schemes,” 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20131001031629/http://www.energyandresources.vic.gov.au/energy/environment-and-community/victorian-feed-in-tariff-schemes (accessed Apr. 01, 2021).
[58] Australian Capital Territory Government, “Rooftop solar - Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate - Environment,” 2020. https://www.environment.act.gov.au/energy/cleaner-energy/rooftop_solar (accessed Apr. 01, 2021).
[59] International Energy Agency, “Residential Net Feed-in Tariff for Western Australia,” 2020. https://www.iea.org/policies/4925-residential-net-feed-in-tariff-for-western-australia (accessed Apr. 01, 2021).
[60] Australian Capital Territory Government, “Assistance, rebates and subsidies for households and businesses - Actsmart,” 2020. https://www.actsmart.act.gov.au/energy-saving/rebatessubsidies (accessed Apr. 02, 2021).
[61] Government of South Australia, “South Australia’s Home Battery Scheme,” 2021. https://homebatteryscheme.sa.gov.au/about-the-scheme (accessed Apr. 02, 2021).
[62] Victoria State Government, “Solar Homes Program | Solar Victoria,” 2021. https://www.solar.vic.gov.au/ (accessed Apr. 02, 2021).
[63] Australian National Audit Office, “Green Loans Program,” Canberra, 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.anao.gov.au/sites/g/files/net1661/f/ANAO_Report_2010-2011_9.pdf.
[64] Australian National Audit Office, “Management of the National Solar Schools Program,” Canberra, 2011. [Online]. Available: https://www.anao.gov.au/work/performance-audit/management-national-solar-schools-program.
[65] K. K. Zander, G. Simpson, S. Mathew, R. Nepal, and S. T. Garnett, “Preferences for and potential impacts of financial incentives to install residential rooftop solar photovoltaic systems in Australia,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 230, pp. 328–338, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.133.
[66] Australian Government, “Solar Credits—frequently asked questions (FAQs),” Nov. 02, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20120701100550/http://www.climatechange.gov.au/government/initiatives/renewable-target/need-ret/solar-credits-faq.aspx (accessed Apr. 20, 2021).
[67] R. Best, P. J. Burke, and S. Nishitateno, “Evaluating the effectiveness of Australia’s Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme for rooftop solar,” Energy Economics, vol. 84, pp. 1–11, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.eneco.2019.104475.
[68] R. Best and S. Trück, “Capital and policy impacts on Australian small-scale solar installations,” Energy Policy, vol. 136, pp. 1–10, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2019.111082.
[69] ActewAGL, “Changes to ActewAGL Solar Buyback scheme 1 July 2013 – FAQs,” 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130623054251/http://www.actewagl.com.au/Product-and-services/Offers-and-prices/Prices/Residential/ACT/Feed-in-schemes/ActewAGL-Solar-buyback-scheme/Transition-to-net-metering.aspx (accessed Apr. 19, 2021).
[70] L. Poruschi, C. L. Ambrey, and J. C. R. Smart, “Revisiting feed-in tariffs in Australia: A review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 82, pp. 260–270, Feb. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.09.027.
[71] A. J. Chapman, B. McLellan, and T. Tezuka, “Residential solar PV policy: An analysis of impacts, successes and failures in the Australian case,” Renewable Energy, vol. 86, pp. 1265–1279, Feb. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2015.09.061.
[72] Solar Choice, “Residential Solar PV Price Index - April 2021 | Solar Choice,” Apr. 09, 2021. https://www.solarchoice.net.au/blog/residential-solar-pv-price-index-april-2021/ (accessed Apr. 18, 2021).
[73] Australian Renewable Energy Agency, “ARENA Annual Report 2012 – 13,” Canberra, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://arena.gov.au/assets/2017/02/ARENA_Annual_Report_2012-13.pdf.
[74] Australian Renewable Energy Agency, “ARENA Annual Report 2013 – 14,” Canberra, 2014. [Online]. Available: https://arena.gov.au/assets/2017/02/ARENA-Annual-Report-2013-14.pdf.
[75] Australian Renewable Energy Agency, “ARENA Annual Report 2014 – 15,” Canberra, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://arena.gov.au/assets/2017/02/Arena_Annual-Report_2014-15.pdf.
[76] Australian Renewable Energy Agency, “ARENA Annual Report 2015 – 16,” Canberra, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://arena.gov.au/assets/2017/02/AR21288-ARENA-Accessibility-file_LR.pdf.
[77] Australian Renewable Energy Agency, “ARENA Annual Report 2016 – 17,” Canberra, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://arena.gov.au/assets/2017/10/2016-2017-arena-annual-report.pdf.
[78] Australian Renewable Energy Agency, “ARENA Annual Report 2017 – 18,” Canberra, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://arena.gov.au/assets/2018/10/annual-report-17-18.pdf.
[79] Australian Renewable Energy Agency, “ARENA Annual Report 2018 – 19,” Canberra, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://arena.gov.au/assets/2019/10/arena-annual-report-2018-19.pdf.
[80] Australian Renewable Energy Agency, “ARENA Annual Report 2019 – 20,” Canberra, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://arena.gov.au/assets/2020/06/arena-annual-report-19-20.pdf.
[81] International Energy Agency, “Energy Technology RD&D Budgets (2020 edition),” Paris, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.iea.org/statistics/rdd/.
[82] I. N. S. Kumara, “PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TENAGA SURYA SKALA RUMAH TANGGA URBAN DAN KETERSEDIAANNYA DI INDONESIA,” Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 68–75, 2010, Accessed: May 10, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/JTE/article/view/1767.
Published
2021-12-25
How to Cite
KUSNANDAR, Giusna Dipankara; SATYA KUMARA, I Nyoman; SUKERAYASA, I Wayan. Pengaruh Kebijakan, Regulasi, dan Anggaran Terhadap Perkembangan Kapasitas PLTS di Australia. Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro, [S.l.], v. 20, n. 2, p. 245-256, dec. 2021. ISSN 2503-2372. Available at: <https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/JTE/article/view/72782>. Date accessed: 26 june 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.24843/MITE.2021.v20i02.P08.